News:

Standards & Audits | About PDCA | PDCA Services | Glossary | Miscellaneous |

GLOSSARY

Audit
Audit[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.1] systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining objective evidence (3.8) and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria (3.7) are fulfilled. Note 1 to entry: Internal audits, sometimes called first party audits, are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization itself. Note 2 to entry: External audits include those generally called second and third party audits. Second party audits are conducted by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by other individuals on their behalf. Third party audits are conducted by independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification registration of conformity or governmental agencies. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.1, modified — Notes to entry have been modified]
 
Audit Client[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.12] organization or person requesting an audit (3.1). Note 1 to entry: In the case of internal audit, the audit client can also be the auditee (3.13) or the individual(s) managing the audit programme. Requests for external audit can come from sources such as regulators, contracting parties or potential or existing clients. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.11, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added]
 
Audit Conclusion[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.11] outcome of an audit (3.1), after consideration of the audit objectives and all audit findings (3.10). [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.10]
 
Audit Criteria[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.7] set of requirements (3.23) used as a reference against which objective evidence (3.8) is compared. Note 1 to entry: If the audit criteria are legal (including statutory or regulatory) requirements, the words “compliance” or “non-compliance” are often used in an audit finding (3.10). Note 2 to entry: Requirements may include policies, procedures, work instructions, legal requirements, contractual obligations, etc. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.7, modified — the definition has been changed and Notes to entry 1 and 2 have been added]
 
Audit Evidence[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.9] records, statements of fact or other information, which are relevant to the audit criteria (3.7) and verifiable. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.8]
 
Audit Findings[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.10] results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence (3.9) against audit criteria (3.7). Note 1 to entry: Audit findings indicate conformity (3.20) or nonconformity (3.21). Note 2 to entry: Audit findings can lead to the identification of risks, opportunities for improvement or recording good practices. Note 3 to entry: In English if the audit criteria are selected from statutory requirements or regulatory requirements, the audit finding is termed compliance or non-compliance. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.9, modified — Notes to entry 2 and 3 have been modified]
 
Audit Plan[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.6] description of the activities and arrangements for an audit (3.1). [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.6]
 
Audit Programme[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.4] arrangements for a set of one or more audits (3.1) planned for a specific time frame and directed towards a specific purpose. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.4, modified — wording has been added to the definition]
 
Audit Scope[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.5] extent and boundaries of an audit (3.1). Note 1 to entry: The audit scope generally includes a description of the physical and virtual-locations, functions, organizational units, activities and processes, as well as the time period covered. Note 2 to entry: A virtual location is where an organization performs work or provides a service using an on-line environment allowing individuals irrespective of physical locations to execute processes. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.5, modified — Note 1 to entry has been modified, Note 2 to entry has been added]
 
Audit Team[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.14] one or more persons conducting an audit (3.1), supported if needed by technical experts (3.16). Note 1 to entry: One auditor (3.15) of the audit team (3.14) is appointed as the audit team leader. Note 2 to entry: The audit team can include auditors-in-training. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.14]
 
Auditee[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.13] organization as a whole or parts thereof being audited. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.12, modified]
 
Auditor[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.15] person who conducts an audit (3.1). [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.15]
 
Combined Audit[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.2] audit (3.1) carried out together at a single auditee (3.13) on two or more management systems (3.18). Note 1 to entry: When two or more discipline-specific management systems are integrated into a single. management system this is known as an integrated management system. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.2, modified]
 
Competence[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.22] ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.10.4, modified — Notes to entry have been deleted]
 
Conformity[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.20] fulfilment of a requirement (3.23). [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.6.11, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted]
 
Effectiveness[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.26] extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.7.11, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted]
 
Joint Audit[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.3] audit (3.1) carried out at a single auditee (3.13) by two or more auditing organizations. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.3]
 
Management System[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.18] set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization to establish policies and objectives, and processes (3.24) to achieve those objectives. Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines, e.g. quality management, financial management or environmental management. Note 2 to entry: The management system elements establish the organization’s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning, operation, policies, practices, rules, beliefs, objectives and processes to achieve those objectives. Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system can include the whole of the organization, specific and identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more functions across a group of organizations. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.5.3, modified — Note 4 to entry has been deleted]
 
Nonconformity[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.21] non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.23). [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.6.9, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted]
 
Objective Evidence[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.8] data supporting the existence or verity of something. Note 1 to entry: Objective evidence can be obtained through observation, measurement, test or by other means. Note 2 to entry: Objective evidence for the purpose of the audit (3.1) generally consists of records, statements of fact, or other information which are relevant to the audit criteria (3.7) and verifiable. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.8.3]
 
Observer[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.17] individual who accompanies the audit team (3.14) but does not act as an auditor (3.15). [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.17, modified]
 
Performance[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.25] measurable result. Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings. Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes (3.24), products, services, systems or organizations. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.7.8, modified — Note 3 to entry has been deleted]
 
Process[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.24] set of interrelated or interacting activities that use inputs to deliver an intended result. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.4.1, modified — Notes to entry have been deleted]
 
Requirement[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.23] need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory. Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization and interested parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied. Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.6.4, modified — Notes to entry 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been deleted]
 
Risk[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.19] effect of uncertainty. Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected – positive or negative. Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or knowledge of, an event, its consequence and likelihood. Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential events (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.5.1.3) and consequences (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.3), or a combination of these. Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated likelihood (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.1) of occurrence. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.7.9, modified — Notes to entry 5 and 6 have been deleted]
 
Technical Expert[ISO19011:2018 - clause 3.16] audit person who provides specific knowledge or expertise to the audit team (3.14). Note 1 to entry: Specific knowledge or expertise relates to the organization, the activity, process, product, service, discipline to be audited, or language or culture. Note 2 to entry: A technical expert to the audit team (3.14) does not act as an auditor (3.15). [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.16, modified — Notes to entry 1 and 2 have been modified]
 
 
CoC
ACCREDITED CERTIFICATEA certificate issued by a certification body within the scope of its accreditation which bears the accreditation body symbol.
 
AGGLOMERATED CORK STOPPERSStoppers formed of granulated corks which are constituents derived from the manufacture of natural cork closures.
 
ASSEMBLED PRODUCTSProducts that are constructed from two or more solid wood and or chip and fibre components, assembled together to form another product. Examples include furniture, shelving units, musical instruments, plywood, blockboard, laminated veneer lumber, laminated flooring, laminated particle board, and printed materials containing different paper components.
 
BANNERDisplayed using a stand or placeholder, typically larger than posters.
 
BARTOP CORK STOPPERis a cork composed by a cork body and a capsule in another material.
 
BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTConservation International 25 richest and most threatened reservoirs of plant and animal life on Earth.
 
BLOCKBOARDEngineered wood product characterized by an intermediate ply consisting of sawn bars.
 
BOARDS- FINISHEDRefers to wood used in construction that is finished (moulded, planed, or sanded) and cut to standardized width and depth (≤ 2.54 cm thick)
 
BOULERectangular, unedged block of wood.
 
BROCHUREType of leaflet, also referred to as a pamphlet.
 
BUSINESS TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONA claim made about a product where the information given about the product is exclusively directed to other businesses interested in using the product in further manufacturing processes or trade. Business to business communications exclude claims made to final consumers and trademark use on companies stationery templates.
 
CATALOGUEPublication containing a list of general merchandise from a company.
 
CENTRAL OFFICEThe identified central function (e.g. office, department or person) within a multi-site organization through which the organization fulfils its responsibilities to the certification body. The central office of the organization holds ultimate management responsibility for maintaining the certification contract with the certification body and will be held responsible for upholding the Chain of Custody system and ensuring that the requirements of the relevant Chain of Custody certification standard(s) are met at the participating sites included in the scope of the multi-site certificate.
 
CERTIFIED MATERIALRaw material whose origin is covered by the chain of custody claims. Note The criteria for certified material and its suppliers are defined as a part of the definition of PEFC claim(s) which can be found in an Appendix to this standard. In addition, forest certification schemes endorsed by PEFC can make their own definition of certified material for the purposes of their own claims applied together with this standard.
 
CERTIFIED PRODUCTProduct which is claimed as including certified material whose content is verified by chain of custody.
 
CHAIN OF CUSTODY (CoC)The path taken by raw materials, processed materials, finished products, and co-products from the forest to the consumer or (in the case of reclaimed recycled materials or products containing them) from the reclamation site to the consumer, including each stage of processing, transformation, manufacturing, storage and transport where progress to the next stage of the supply chain involves a change of ownership (independent custodianship) of the materials or the products.
 
CHAIN OF CUSTODY OF FOREST BASED PRODUCTSProcess of handling of information on the origin of forest based products
 
CHAIN OF CUSTODY OPERATIONIndividual, company or other legal entity operating one or more facilities or sites within any stage of the forest product supply chain and issuing invoices for materials or products with an FSC claim that can be used by customers to treat such products as certified or make promotional claims.
 
CHIP AND FIBRE PRODUCTSAll products that use input-wood that has been chipped or defibrillated. Such products include, for example, pulp, paper (including print materials), cardboard, particleboard, fibreboard and orientated strand board (OSB).
 
CIVIL RIGHTSRight or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship. The rights that every person in a society has, for example to be treated equally, to be able to vote, work, etc.
 
CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLATIONSInfringement of the right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship.
 
CLAIMInformation which indicates certain aspects of a product. Note The term claim used in this standard indicates usage of the official chain of custody claims relating to the PEFC claim.
 
CLAIM PERIODA period of time which has been specified by the organization for each product group for the purpose of making a specific FSC claim.
 
CO-PRODUCTMaterial produced during the process of primary manufacturing of another (principal) product, from the same input. Such materials are, for the purposes of this standard, classified depending on the material category from which they are (co-) produced.
 
COATED PAPERAll paper suitable for printing or other graphic purposes and coated on one or both sides with minerals such as china clay (kaolin), calcium carbonate, etc. Coating may be by a variety of methods, both on-machine and off-machine, and may be supplemented by super-calendering. Coated Mechanical papers are made of fibres produced mainly (90%) by a mechanical pulping process and are also known as coated groundwood. Coated Woodfree papers are made of fibres produced mainly (90%) by a chemical pulping process and are also known as coated freesheet.
 
COLMATED CORKSNatural cork stoppers with their pores (lenticels) sealed exclusively with cork dust, which results from rectifying natural cork stoppers. For the cork dust to adhere to the pores (lenticels), FDA grade natural resin, rubber glue and occasionally water-based glue are used.
 
COMPANYThe entity complying with this standard.
 
COMPONENTAn individual and distinguishable part of an assembled product.
 
COMPRESSED WOODWood that has been densified by pressure.
 
CONFLICT TIMBER“Timber that has been traded at some point in the chain of custody by armed groups, be they rebel factions or regular soldiers, or by a civilian administration involved in armed conflict or its representatives, either to perpetuate conflict or take advantage of conflict situations for personal gain... conflict timber is not necessarily illegal or the exploitation of timber may itself be a direct cause of conflict. (Definition used by UNEP (http www.unep.org dewa Africa publications AEO-2 content 205.htm).
 
CONTROLLED MATERIALVirgin material originating in non FSC-certified forests or plantations from suppliers included in the verification program of organizations certified according to FSC-STD-40-005.
 
CONTROLLED SOURCESMaterial for which the risk of originating from controversial sources has been minimized through the implementation of the PEFC Due Diligence System.
 
CONTROVERSIAL SOURCESForest management activities which are (a) not complying with local, national or international legislation, in particular related to the following areas - forestry operations and harvesting, including conversion of forest to other use - management of areas with designated high environmental and cultural values, - protected and endangered species, including requirements of CITES, - health and labor issues relating to forest workers, - indigenous peoples’ property, tenure and use rights, - payment of taxes and royalties, (b) utilizing genetically modified organisms, (c) converting forest to other vegetation type, including conversion of primary forests to forest plantations. Note The policy on the exclusion of material from genetically modified organisms remains in force until 31 December 2015.
 
CONVERSION FACTORThe ratio between material quantity entering and leaving a given transformation process employed by the organization. The conversion factor is calculated by dividing the output (volume or weight) by the input (volume or weight) and is applied to each individual component of a product group.
 
CORRUGATED FIBREBOARDSometimes known as corrugated board or corrugated cardboard, is a combined paper-based material consisting of a fluted corrugated medium and one or two flat linerboards.
 
CREDIT ACCOUNTA record kept by a certified organization operating a credit system which lists entries and withdrawals of volume credits for the purpose of selling products with FSC claims.
 
CREDIT CLAIMPart of an FSC claim for FSC Mix or FSC Recycled products which specifies that the full quantity can be used as FSC input or post-consumer input for subsequent calculations of input percentages or FSC credit. Applicable claims are “FSC Mix Credit” or “FSC Recycled Credit”.
 
CREDIT SYSTEMA Chain of Custody system applied at the product group level which allows a proportion of outputs to be sold with a credit claim corresponding to the quantity of FSC and post-consumer inputs. Considering the applicable conversion factor(s), FSC and postconsumer inputs can be accumulated as FSC credit on a credit account.
 
CREPEPaper that has been coated with sizing and then creped to create gathers.
 
CUSTOMERA single entity, either buyer or user of the organization products, to whom the claim is made. Note The term customer also covers an internal customer within the organization where more subsequent product groups exist.
 
DECKINGFloor decking normally used for terraces (a low or high raised flat platform).
 
DEINKED PULPPulp made from recovered paper from which inks and other contaminants have been removed.
 
DELIVERY DOCUMENTSDocument accompanying a shipment of goods that lists the description, grade, and quantity of the goods delivered. Delivery documents are also called delivery notes, shipping or transport documents.
 
DIMENSIONAL TIMBER LUMBER- FINISHEDWood used in construction that is finished (moulded, planed and or sanded) and cut to standardized width and depth (e.g. 2x4 inches, 5x10 cm).
 
DISSOLVING PULPPulp consisting of nearly pure cellulose. It is also called high purity cellulose.
 
DISTRICTGeneric geographical definition within a country, which has similar features and similar risk for controlled wood categories and from which wood is sourced. It can be a county, locality or watershed, and is normally a sub-set of an eco-region.
 
DUE DILIGENCE SYSTEM (DDS)A framework of procedures and measures, namely information gathering, risk assessment and risk mitigation, to exercise due diligence.
 
ECOREGIONA large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities that (a) share a large majority of their species and ecological dynamics; (b) share similar environmental conditions, and; (c) interact ecologically in ways that are critical for their long-term persistence. (WWF - http www.worldwildlife.org science ecoregions.cfm)
 
EDGINGRough edged, often conical pinnacled trimmings, also called splinter.
 
ELIGIBLE INPUTVirgin and reclaimed material input that is eligible to enter a specific FSC product group depending on its material category. [Material category] [Eligible for product group(s)] a) FSC 100% material FSC 100%, FSC Mix, b) FSC Mix material FSC Mix, c) FSC Recycled material FSC Mix, FSC Recycled, d) FSC Controlled Wood FSC Mix, FSC Controlled Wood, e) controlled material FSC Mix, FSC Controlled Wood, f) post-consumer reclaimed material FSC Mix, FSC Recycled, ag) pre-consumer reclaimed material FSC Mix, FSC Recycled
 
ETHANOLAlcohol fermented from natural wood sugars that are extracted from the waste sulfite liquor produced from the specialty cellulose pulp process.
 
FINISHED PRODUCTProduct that receives no further transformation in terms of processing, labeling or packaging prior to its intended end use.
 
FLITCHUnedged block of wood.
 
FLUTINGCorrugating medium between the linerboard of corrugated board.
 
FLYERSingle printed page with no folds, sometimes called leaflet.
 
FOREST BASED MATERIALRaw material originating in forest areas or from other areas recognized by the PEFC Council as eligible for PEFC forest management certification, including recycled material originally coming from those areas. Note The forest based material includes wood based as well as non-wood based material.
 
FOREST BASED PRODUCTSProducts which include forest based material.
 
FOREST PLANTATION TIMBER PLANTATION PRODUCTIVE PLANTATIONForest or other wooded land of introduced species, and in some cases native species, established through planting or seeding mainly for production of wood or non-wood goods. Note 1 Includes all stands of introduced species established for production of wood or non-wood goods. Note 2 May include areas of native species characterized by few species, intensive land preparation (e.g. cultivation), straight tree lines and or even-aged stands. Note 3 Application of the definition requires consideration of national forestry terminology and legal requirements.
 
FORESTRY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMEA scheme based on the development of standards for forest certification and assessment of operations for trade and production of forest products.
 
FSC 100%FSC-certified virgin material originating in FSC-certified forests or plantations that has not been mixed with material of another material category throughout the supply chain. FSC 100% products are eligible to be used in FSC 100% or FSC Mix product groups.
 
FSC CERTIFIED MATERIALFSC 100%, FSC Mix or FSC Recycled material that is supplied with an FSC claim by an organization which has been assessed by an FSC-accredited certification body for conformity with FSC Forest Management and or Chain of Custody requirements.
 
FSC CERTIFIED PRODUCTFSC certified material that is eligible to carry an FSC label and to be promoted with the FSC trademarks.
 
FSC CLAIMClaim made on sales and delivery documents for FSC-certified material or FSC Controlled Wood that specifies the material category and, for FSC Mix and FSC Recycled products, an associated percentage claim or credit claim. The appropriate FSC claims for each product group and Chain of Custody control system are presented below [Product groups] [Control system] [FSC claim] FSC 100% Transfer system “FSC 100%”, FSC Mix Percentage system “FSC Mix x%”, FSC Mix Credit system “FSC Mix Credit”, FSC Recycled Percentage system “FSC Recycled x%“, FSC Recycled Credit system “FSC Recycled Credit“, FSC Controlled Wood Transfer system “FSC Controlled Wood“
 
FSC CONTROLLED WOODMaterial originating in non FSC-certified forests or plantations supplied with an FSC claim by a supplier which has been assessed by an FSC-accredited certification body for conformity with FSC Chain of Custody and or FSC Controlled Wood requirements (FSC-STD-40-005 or FSC-STD-30-010).
 
FSC CREDITAmount of product (volume or weight) that can be sold from a product group with a credit claim. Applicable only when using the credit system.
 
FSC INPUTInput of FSC-certified virgin material that counts towards the input percentage or towards the FSC credit for a product group as follows a) material with an FSC 100% claim counts as the full quantity stated on the supplier invoice; b) material with an FSC Mix x% claim counts as the percentage of its quantity that is stated on the supplier invoice; c) material with an FSC Mix credit claim counts as the full quantity stated on the supplier invoice;
 
FSC MIXFSC-certified virgin material based on input from FSC-certified, controlled and or reclaimed sources, and supplied with a percentage claim or credit claim. FSC Mix material is only eligible to be used in FSC Mix product groups.
 
FSC RECYCLEDFSC-certified reclaimed material based on exclusive input from reclaimed sources, and supplied with a percentage claim or credit claim. FSC Recycled material or products are eligible to be used in FSC Mix or FSC Recycled product groups.
 
FUELWOODRoundwood or other parts of a (felled) tree used for energy production. e.g. splitwood, split billets, chips, forest pellets, faggot and firestarters, also called firewood.
 
GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) TREEGMO derived from a tree species.
 
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM (GMO)Biological organism which has been induced by various means to consist of genetic structural changes (FSC Principles and Criteria, Feb 2000).
 
GLOBAL 200 ECOREGIONA region identified on the basis of species richness; endemism; higher taxonomic uniqueness; extraordinary ecological or evolutionary phenomena and global rarity of the major habitat type (WWF International, The Global 200 Ecoregions).
 
GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER (GLULAM)Type of structural product composed of several layers of dimensioned timber glued together, also called glulam or manufactured trusses.
 
GREASEPROOF PAPERPaper that is impermeable to oil or grease and is normally used in cooking or food packaging.
 
GUM RESINSolid form of resin, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components.
 
HAMMOCKSling suspended between two points, used for swinging, sleeping or resting.
 
HCVF - HIGH CONSERVATION VALUE FORESTSHigh conservation Value Forests are those that have one or more of the following attributes a) forest areas containing globally, regionally or nationally significant concentrations of biodiversity values (e.g. endemism, endangered species, refugia); and or large landscape level forests, contained within, or containing the management unit, where viable populations of most if not all naturally occurring species exist in natural patterns of distribution and abundance b) forest areas that are in or contain rare; threatened or endangered ecosystems c) forest areas that provide basic services of nature in critical situations (e.g. watershed protection, erosion control) d) forest areas fundamental to meeting basic needs of local communities (e.g. subsistence, health) and or critical to local communities’ traditional cultural identity (areas of cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance identified in cooperation with such local communities
 
I-JOISTAn I-Joist comprises a web and two flanges. The web (typically OSB or plywood) is sandwiched between a top and bottom flange (typically LVL or sawn lumber).
 
IDENTIFIERCertification bodies will assign an alphabetical, numerical or alphanumerical identifier for each participating site in the multi-site certificate. This identifier will be used for internal record keeping and data management purposes on behalf of FSC.
 
ILLEGALLY HARVESTED WOODWood that has been harvested in violation of any laws applicable to harvesting in that location or jurisdiction including the acquisition of the harvesting rights from the rightful owner; the harvesting methods used and the payment of all relevant fees and royalties.
 
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES"The existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them and, by conquest, settlement, or other means reduced them to a non-dominant or colonial situation; who today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions than with the institutions of the country of which they now form a part, under State structure which incorporates mainly the national, social and cultural characteristics of other segments of the population which are predominant." (Working definition adopted by the UN Working Group on Indigenous Peoples) (FSC Principles and Criteria, February 2000). Convention 169 of the International Labor Office relates to Indigenous and Tribal peoples and is applicable to the definitions and provisions of this standard.
 
INPUTRaw materials, semi-finished or finished products that are procured or generated by an organization, and physically enter the production process or are traded under the scope of a specific FSC product group.
 
INPUT PERCENTAGEPercentage of FSC and or post-consumer input to a product group for a specific claim period. Applicable only when using the percentage system.
 
INSTITUTIONAL CASEWORKFurniture of a kind used in educational and health care environments, such as schools, medical facilities, laboratories.
 
INTACT FOREST LANDSCAPEAn intact forest landscape is a territory within the forest zone, which contains minimally disturbed by human economic activity forest and non-forest ecosystems with an area of at least 500 sq. km and with a minimal width (diameter of the inscribed circle) of 10 km.
 
INTERNAL AUDITSInternal audits are monitoring activities of participating sites carried out by the central office ensuring that all the requirements of certification (including the relevant certification standard(s) and any other requirements of the certification body) are fully implemented. Internal audits are carried out as initial audits of applicants prior to being admitted as a participating site and as annual audits to confirm continual compliance with all the requirements of certification. They include a visit to the operational site(s) and a review of the documented systems.
 
LABELLINGUsage of labels (on- or off-product).
 
LAMINATE FLOORINGMulti-layer synthetic flooring product fused together with a lamination process. Laminate flooring simulates wood (or stone, in some cases) with a photographic appliqué layer under a clear protective layer. The inner core layer is usually composed of melamine resin and fibre board materials.
 
LAMINATED COMPRESSED WOODConsists of laminated veneer sheets that are densified under pressure. It is also called densified wood.
 
LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER (LVL)Laminated veneer lumber consists of veneers (typically 1 7”-1 10” thickness) all running parallel to the length of product (exception that some layups may require 1-2 cross plies for improved dimensional stability). LVL is commonly bonded together using exterior structural-grade adhesives that are cured under high temperature and pressure.
 
LAMINBOARDEngineered wood product that has an intermediate ply consisting of upright standing strips of peeled veneer.
 
LOW-RISK FOREST AREAForest areas classified as having a low risk of supplying wood from the categories as outlined in section 1.1 of FSC-STD-40-005 Standard for company evaluation of FSC Controlled Wood.
 
MAGAZINEPublication generally published on a regular schedule, at least four times a year.
 
MATERIAL CATEGORYCategories of virgin or reclaimed material that, if eligible input, can be used in FSC product groups a) FSC 100% material, b) FSC Mix material, c) FSC Recycled material, d) FSC Controlled Wood, e) controlled material, f) post-consumer reclaimed material, g) pre-consumer reclaimed material
 
MINOR COMPONENTSForest based components of an FSC 100% or FSC Mix assembled product constituting less than 5% of the weight or volume of the virgin and reclaimed materials in the product. Minor components can be exempted from the requirements for Chain of Custody control as specified by this standard.
 
MOULDED PLYWOODFormed plywood under heat and moisture for special purposes, e.g. chair seats.
 
MOULDINGA strip of material used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration.
 
MULTI-SITE ORGANIZATIONAn organization that has an identified central office and a network of at least two sites. Products from these sites or from identified sets of sites covered by a multi-site certificate must be substantially of the same kind, and must be produced or handled according to fundamentally the same methods and procedures.
 
NEUTRAL MATERIALRaw material whose origin is considered as neutral in the calculation of the certification percentage. Note The criteria for neutral material are defined as a part of the definition of PEFC claims which can be found in an Appendix to this standard on specification of claims. In addition, forest certification schemes endorsed by PEFC can make their own definition of neutral material within their own claims used together with this standard.
 
NEWSPRINTPaper mainly used for printing newspapers. It is made largely from mechanical pulp and or recovered paper, with or without a small amount of filler. Weights usually range from 40 to 52g m² but can be as high as 65g m². Newsprint is machine-finished or slightly calendered, white or slightly colored and is used in reels for letterpress, offset or flexoprinting.
 
NON-FOREST BASED MATERIALMaterial that comes from outside a forest matrix. Examples are nonwood plant fibres (e.g. flax used in the manufacture of a board classified as a wood-based panel, or of a composite product), synthesized or inorganic materials (e.g. glass, metal, plastics, fillers, brighteners, etc.), but do not include non-timber forest products or salvaged wood. Non-forest based materials used in FSC product groups are exempt from Chain of Custody control requirements.
 
NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTAll forest products except timber, including other materials obtained from trees such as resins and leaves, as well as any other plant and animal products. Examples include, but are not limited to, seeds, fruits, nuts, honey, ornamental plants and other forest products whether they were originated inside a forest system.
 
NOTEBOOKBook or binder composed of pages of notes, often ruled, used for various purposes including recording notes, drawing or something like this. They are of varying sizes. Notebooks are also called notepads, writing pads, drawing pads, etc.
 
OFFICIAL RECLAIMED PAPER CLASSIFICATION AND ASSORTMENT SYSTEMOfficial classification and assortment systems of reclaimed papers are developed by (supra-)national organizations (e.g. state, industry associations) and are based upon defined, verifiable and transparent criteria, offering a benchmark for dispute resolution mechanism. These criteria usually aim at the categorization of reclaimed paper material according to certain quality aspects, but their application in specific supply chains should allow the characterization of the relevant points of reclamation. Official classification and assortment systems are recognized and used in the market in such a way that the classifications and corresponding claims are basic elements in commercial transaction documents and incorrect claims may lead to legal actions against the one who made the claim.
 
ON-PRODUCTTerm applied to any label, packaging or marking attached or applied to a product. Examples of on-product labels or marks include product tags, stencils, heat brands, information on retail packaging for small loose products (e.g. pencils), protective packaging and plastic wrap.
 
ORGANISATIONAny entity which is making the claims on products and is implementing requirements of this standard. Such an entity has ability to clearly identify the supplier of raw material and the customer of its products.
 
ORIGINForest area where the trees for the wood or fiber were harvested.
 
ORIGIN MATERIAL ORIGINInformation associated with the raw material used in the product referring to the characteristics of the place that the raw material comes from. Note The origin (i.e. “characteristics of the place where the raw material is coming from”) means for example the origin in PEFC certified, sustainable managed forest or the origin in recycled sources. This standard uses three categories of the origin, certified, neutral and other material, whose definitions are made specifically for individual claims.
 
OTHER MATERIALRaw material other than certified and neutral material.
 
OUTPUTRaw materials, semi-finished or finished products that are produced and or supplied by an organization with an FSC claim.
 
PAPERA material manufactured in thin, lightweight, flexible sheets from the pulp of wood or other fibrous substances, typically used for writing, drawing, or printed on, or as wrapping material.
 
PAPERBOARDA material manufactured in thick, heavy, rigid sheets from the pulp of wood or other fibrous substances, typically used for construction of corrugated or cartons. Sometimes referred to as cardboard, containerboard or boxboard.
 
PARALLEL STRAND LUMBER (PSL)PSL consists of long veneer strands laid in parallel formation and bonded together with an adhesive to form the finished structural section. Like LVL and glulams, this product is used for beam and header applications where high bending strength is needed. PSL is also frequently used as load-bearing columns.
 
PARQUET FLOORINGGeometric mosaic of solid wood pieces used for flooring.
 
PARTICIPATING SITESite which is included in the scope of a multi-site certificate. Participating sites do not hold individual certificates, but so long as they comply with all the requirements of their agreement with the central office, they are covered by the multi-site certificate.
 
PARTICLEBOARDEngineered wood product manufactured from wood particles (mainly shavings), also called chipboards.
 
PEFC RECOGNISED CERTIFICATEis (a) a valid accredited forest management certificate issued by a PEFC notified certification body against the forest management scheme standard which is endorsed by the PEFC Council, (b) a valid accredited chain of custody certificate issued by a PEFC notified certification body against this standard together with PEFC recognized specification of the material category, or (c) a valid accredited chain of custody certificate issued by a PEFC notified certification body against a scheme specific chain of custody standard which is endorsed by the PEFC Council. Note PEFC endorsed forest certification schemes and chain of custody standards are found at the PEFC Council website, www.pefc.org.
 
PERCENTAGE CLAIMPart of an FSC claim for FSC Mix or FSC Recycled products that specifies the percentage of their FSC or post-consumer input, respectively. Buyers of such products must use the percentage claim for subsequent calculations of input percentages or FSC credit.
 
PERCENTAGE SYSTEMA Chain of Custody system applied at the product group level which allows all outputs to be sold with a percentage claim that corresponds to the proportion of FSC and post-consumer input over a certain period in time.
 
PHYSICAL SEPARATIONA procedure in which various materials products of different origin are kept separate so that the origin of the material products used and transferred to the customer is known. Note Physical separation can involve physical separation at an organization’s facility e.g. in separate bays or in specific storage areas of the facility, or it can include clear marking or usage or having distinguishing marks, to readily identify the materials of different origin categories.
 
POINT OF RECLAMATIONThe location, process or site where material is diverted from the waste stream from industrial, residential or municipal sources and reclaimed thereby constituting the starting point within the supply chain for reclaimed material.
 
POINT OF SALE MATERIALAdvertising and promotional material displayed in stores, shop floors, exhibition floors, etc. In the specific location where products are offered for sale to final consumers.
 
POST-CONSUMER INPUTInput of post-consumer reclaimed and FSC Recycled material that counts towards the input percentage or towards the FSC credit for a product group as follows a) Post-consumer reclaimed material counts as the full quantity stated on the supplier invoice; b) material with an FSC Recycled x% claim counts as the percentage of its quantity that is stated on the supplier invoice;.c) material with an FSC Recycled credit claim counts as the full quantity stated on the supplier invoice.
 
POST-CONSUMER RECLAIMED MATERIALMaterial that is reclaimed from a consumer or commercial product that has been used for its intended purpose by individuals, households or by commercial, industrial and institutional facilities in their role as end-users of the product.
 
POSTERPrinted paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.
 
PRE-CONSUMER RECLAIMED MATERIALMaterial that is reclaimed from a process of secondary manufacture or further downstream industry, in which the material has not been intentionally produced, is unfit for end use and not capable of being re-used on-site in the same manufacturing process that generated it.
 
PRESSBOARDBoard made by compressing layers of paper together.
 
PRIMARY FORESTForest of native species where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed. Note Includes areas where collection of non-timber forest products occurs, provided the human impact is small. Some trees may have been removed.
 
PRIMARY MANUFACTURINGAny processing that transforms roundwood into materials other than roundwood. For chip and fibre products, primary manufacturing includes the pulp mill as well as the paper mill stage.
 
PROCEDUREA specified way to carry out an activity or process. Procedures can be documented or not.
 
PRODUCT GROUPA product or group of products specified by the organization, which share basic input and output characteristics and thus can be combined for the purpose of FSC Chain of Custody control, percentage calculations and labeling according to the FSC material categories FSC 100%, FSC Mix, FSC Recycled or FSC Controlled Wood.
 
PRODUCT TYPEA general description of outputs based on a categorization or classification system. Examples of product types according to the FSC product classification are ‘logs of coniferous wood’, ‘wood charcoal’, ‘chemical wood pulp’, ‘garden furniture’, or ‘particle board’.
 
PROMOTIONALTerm applied to all statements, claims, trademarks and such like used to promote products, services or organizations, but which are not physically attached or applied to a product itself.
 
PROMOTIONAL USETerm applied to all statements, claims, trademarks and such like used to promote products, companies or organizations; involving advertising, publicity, sales or public relation activities, excluding elements falling in the on-product definition category.
 
RAILWAY SLEEPER TIEA railroad tie railway tie (North America), or railway sleeper (Europe) is a rectangular piece of wood used as a base for railroad tracks.
 
RECLAIMED MATERIALMaterial that demonstrably would have otherwise been disposed of as waste or used for energy recovery, but has instead been collected and reclaimed as input material, in lieu of virgin material, for re-use, recycling, re-milling in a manufacturing process or other commercial application. Inputs of the following material categories are classified as reclaimed material a) FSC Recycled material; b) Post-consumer reclaimed material; c) Pre-consumer reclaimed material.
 
RECYCLED MATERIAL FOREST BASED MATERIALthat is (a) diverted from the waste stream during a manufacturing process. Excluded is reutilisation of materials such as rework, regrind or scrap generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it. Excluded are by-products such as sawmilling by-products (sawdust, chips, bark, etc.) or forestry residues (bark, chips from branches, roots, etc.) as they do not represent “waste stream”. and (b) generated by households or by commercial, industrial and institutional facilities in their role as end-users of the product which can no longer be used for its intended purpose. This includes returns of material from the distribution chain. Note 1 The term “capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it” means that the material generated in one process is continuously returned to the same process at the same site. An example is residue generated by a press line in a panel board production which continuously re-enters the same press line. This is not considered as recycled material. Note 2 Material classified under the grades of recovered paper according to EN 643 is recognized as meeting the definition of the recycled material. Note 3 The definition is based on definitions of ISO 14021 1999.
 
ROLLED THERMAL PAPERThermographic paper in roll (e.g. paper roll used for cash register).
 
ROLLING PERCENTAGE CALCULATIONCalculation of the certification percentage based on input material procured during the specified period before the product’s manufacturing or trading.
 
ROUNDWOODFelled, limbed, if applicable cross-cutted and if applicable debarked wood as raw material for the subsequent manufacturing. E.g. sawmill wood, veneering wood, sleeper timber, pole timber and industrial timber.
 
SALES AND SHIPPING DOCUMENTATIONDocuments used in commercial transactions between sellers and purchasers where specification and descriptions of products are included. Sales and shipping documentation may include order confirmations, invoices, delivery notes and packing lists.
 
SALES DOCUMENTPhysical or electronic commercial instrument issued by a seller to a buyer. Also called invoice, bill of sale, contract of sale, it identifies both the trading parties and lists, describes, and quantifies the items sold, shows the date of sale, prices and delivery and payment terms. It serves as a demand for payment and becomes a document of title when paid in full.
 
SALVAGED WOODWood that has been felled and subsequently lost or abandoned. Examples include lake river salvage (logs timber that sank to the bottom of a river or lake while being transported), wood from orchard clearance, wood from road clearance and urban harvested wood. For the purposes of FSC Chain of custody Control and labeling salvaged wood is considered as virgin material and shall be controlled for use in FSC product groups.
 
SCOPEThe scope of a Chain of Custody certificate defines the organization sites, product groups, and activities that are included in the evaluation by an FSC-accredited certification body, together with the certification standard(s) against which these have been audited.
 
SEGREGATION AND IDENTIFICATION MARKSMarks or labels used for identification of raw or semi-finished material during transportation and storage prior to subsequent manufacturing processes. These marks do not reach the final point of sale and are not used for representation of the product at its point of sale (physical location where the products are offered for sale) or used for promotional exhibitions of products to customers and public.
 
SET OF SITESDescribes sites that are producing or handling essentially the same kinds of products and producing or handling them according to fundamentally the same methods or procedures. A multi-site CoC certificate for multi-site organisations may cover several sets of sites. An additional set of sites may be added to an existing certificate only as the result of a surveillance or re-assessment audit by the responsible certification body. Example A multi-site organization runs 12 facilities 4 sawmills, 2 joinery and moulding plants, and 5 carpentry plants. The organization would have 3 potential sets of sites. The certification body would check that the products produced or handled at all sites within a potential set are substantially of the same kind and are produced or handled according to fundamentally the same methods and procedures. This would enable them to determine how and if the sites may be divided into sets. They would check that the same central office controls each set of sites. If the carpentry plants (for example) are controlled by a different management structure within the organization, then they would require a separate multi-site certificate. Each set is then treated as a separate sample and evaluated accordingly.
 
SHAVINGFine particle of wood produced as a by-product of sawing, also called sawdust or sawings.
 
SIMPLE PERCENTAGE CALCULATIONCalculation of the certification percentage based on input material physically included in the product for which the calculation is made. Note An example of the simple percentage calculation is a printing job where the certification percentage is calculated from the material purchased and used for this specific printing job.
 
SITEA single functional unit of an organization or a combination of units situated at one locality, which is geographically distinct from other units of the same organization or the associated network. In a network of similar operations sites form part of a central Chain of Custody system, and are legally or contractually linked with the central office of a multi-site organization. NOTE Typical examples for sites are processing or trading facilities such as manufacturing sites, remote log yards, sales offices, branches or franchisees.
 
SITE MANAGERPerson or position (e.g., the manager at the participating site) that has overall responsibility for most of the decisions and operations on-site, including activities that he or she does not directly implement. Site managers are responsible for implementing any requirements of their agreement with the central office at the level of their own procedures, and for implementing the procedures necessary for compliance with the relevant Chain of Custody certification standard(s).
 
SLABThe outer part with rough edge of a log, produced during sawing.
 
SLIMF (SMALL OR LOW INTENSITY MANAGED FOREST)A forest management unit which meets specific FSC requirements related to size and or intensity of timber harvesting, and can therefore be evaluated by certification bodies using streamlined evaluation procedures. The applicable FSC requirements are defined in FSC-STD-01-003 SLIMF Eligibility Criteria.
 
SMALL ENTERPRISESCompanies that 1. have no more than 15 employees (including full time, part time, and seasonal staff), OR 2. have no more than 25 employees and an annual turnover of less than US$1,000,000.
 
SMOOTH-SURFACE PANELSThe surface layer of the particleboard consists of fibres.
 
SOIL CONDITIONERMaterial used to improve the physic-chemical and biological qualities of soil.
 
SOLID WOOD PRODUCTSProducts that constitute a single, solid piece of wood, such as a log, beam or plank.
 
SOURCESee “Origin”.
 
STOOLA kind of chair without back or arm rests.
 
SUBSTRATES FOR PLANTSGrowing medium for plants.
 
SUPPLIERIndividual, company or other legal entity providing goods or services to an organization.
 
SUPPLYING COMPANYSee “Supplier”.
 
TECHNICAL CORK STOPPERStoppers that consist of a very dense agglomerate cork body with natural cork disks glued on one or both ends.
 
THERMOGRAPHIC PAPERPaper that changes its color on heating.
 
THREATENEDHaving an uncertain chance of continued survival. In this standard, it should be considered at the ecoregion level for HCVF.
 
TIMBERWood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural material for construction or wood pulp for paper production. In this classification timber is a term also used for sawn wood products.
 
TRADITIONAL RIGHTSRights which result from a long series of habitual or customary actions, constantly repeated, which have, by such repetition and by uninterrupted acquiescence, acquired the force of a law within a geographical or sociological unit. Also known as customary rights (FSC Principles and Criteria, February 2000).
 
TRADITIONAL RIGHTS VIOLATIONSInfringement on local customary rights.
 
TRANSFER SYSTEMA Chain of Custody system applied at the product group level, which allows outputs to be sold with an FSC claim that is identical to the material category and, if applicable, the associated percentage claim or credit claim with the lowest FSC or post-consumer input per input volume.
 
TRANSLUCENT PAPERPaper that allows light to pass through diffusely.
 
UNCOATED PAPERPaper that does not have any kind of coating such as clay or latex applied to it. Uncoated paper is typically used for copy or printing paper.
 
VENEERThin slices of wood, thinner than 6 mm.
 
VENEER PLYWOODPlywood that consists of only parallel veneer layers.
 
VENEER STRIPThe breadth of veneer strips is up to 80 mm.
 
VERY LIMITED PORTIONThe area affected shall not exceed 0.5% of the area of the FMU in any one year, nor affect a total of more than 5% of the area of the FMU.
 
VIRGIN MATERIALPrimary (i.e. non-reclaimed) material originating in forests or plantations. Inputs of the following material categories are classified as virgin material a) FSC 100%; b) FSC Mix; c) Controlled material.
 
WOOD FLOURWood floor is pulverized wood. The consistency is fairly equal to sand or sawdust, but can vary ranging in size from a fine powder to roughly the size of a grain of rice.
 
WOOD WOOLA thin but elastic wood fibre produced during planning, also called excelsior.
 
WRAPPING PAPERSPapers whose main use is wrapping or packaging made from any combination of virgin or recovered fibres, bleached or unbleached. They may be subject to various finishing and or marking processes. Included are sack kraft, other wrapping krafts, sulfite and grease-proof papers.
 
 
ECO
ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGEThis is the simplest yardstick of economic performance. If one person, firm or country can produce more of something with the same amount of effort and resources, they have an absolute advantage over other producers
 
ACCOUNTING YEARYear based on a business cycle
 
AGENCY COSTSThese can arise when somebody (the principal) hires somebody else (the agent) to carry out a task and the interests of the agent conflict with the interests of the principal
 
AMORTIZATION DEPRECIATIONThe running down or payment of a loan by installments
 
APPRECIATIONA rise in the value of an ASSET and the opposite of DEPRECIATION. When the value of a currency rises relative to another, it appreciates
 
ASSETSThings that have earning power or some other value to their owner
 
ASYMMETRIC INFORMATIONWhen somebody knows more than somebody else. Such asymmetric information can make it difficult for the two people to do business together, which is why economists, especially those practicing GAME THEORY, are interested in it
 
ASYMMETRIC SHOCKWhen something unexpected happens that affects one economy (or part of an economy) more than the rest
 
AUCTIONSGoing, going, gone. Holding an auction can be an extremely efficient way for a seller to set the price of its products, especially if it does not have much INFORMATION about how much people may be willing to pay for them
 
AUTARKYThe idea that a country should be self-sufficient and not take part in international trade
 
BALANCED BUDGETWhen total public-sector spending equals total government income during the same period from taxes and charges for public services
 
BANKRUPTCYWhen a court judges that a debtor is unable to make the payments owed to a CREDITOR
 
BARTERPaying for goods or SERVICES with other goods or services, instead of with MONEY
 
BASE YEARYear used for comparison
 
BASIS POINTOne one-hundredth of a PERCENTAGE POINT
 
BEHAVIOURAL ECONOMICSA branch of ECONOMICS that concentrates on explaining the economic decisions people make in practice, especially when these conflict with what conventional economic theory predicts they will do
 
BLACK ECONOMYIf you pay your cleaner or builder in cash, or for some reason neglect to tell the taxman that you were paid for a service rendered, you participate in the black or underground economy
 
BLACK-SCHOLESA formula for pricing financial options
 
BUBBLEWhen the PRICE of an ASSET rises far higher than can be explained by fundamentals, such as the income likely to derive from holding the asset
 
BUDGETAn annual procedure to decide how much PUBLIC SPENDING there should be in the year ahead and what mix of TAXATION, charging for SERVICES and borrowing should finance it. A numerical summary of an organization’s available resources and how those resources are to be allocated based on anticipated future expenditures for various items, such as equipment, training and development programs, benefits, implementing new processes or services, etc...
 
BUDGETARY YEARTo plan how much money you will spend on something Yearly
 
BUSINESS CYCLEBoom and bust. The long-run pattern of economic GROWTH and RECESSION
 
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (CPI)An index of prices used to measure the change in the cost of basic goods and services in comparison with a fixed base period. Also called cost-of-living index.
 
CURRENT FINANCIAL YEARCurrent accounting period
 
ECONOMIC INDICATORA statistic used for judging the health of an economy, such as GDP per head, the rate of unemployment or the rate of inflation
 
ECONOMICSThe study of how society uses its scarce resources
 
EFFICIENCYGetting the most out of the resources used. For a particular sort of efficiency often favored by economists
 
EFFICIENCY WAGESWages that are set at above the market clearing rate so as to encourage workers to increase their productivity
 
EFFICIENT MARKET HYPOTHESISYou can’t beat the market. The efficient market hypothesis says that the price of a financial asset reflects all the information available and responds only to unexpected news. Thus prices can be regarded as optimal estimates of true investment value at all times
 
ELASTICITYA measure of the responsiveness of one variable to changes in another
 
ENTERPRISEOne of the factors of production, along with land, labor and capital. The creative juices of capitalism; the animal spirits of the entrepreneur
 
ENTREPRENEURThe life and soul of the capitalist party. Somebody who has the idea and enterprise to mix together the other factors of production to produce something valuable. An entrepreneur must be willing to take a risk in pursuit of a profit
 
EQUILIBRIUMWhen supply and demand are in balance. At the equilibrium price, the quantity that buyers are willing to buy exactly matches the quantity that sellers are willing to sell. So everybody is satisfied, unlike when there is disequilibrium. In classical economics, it is assumed that markets always tend towards equilibrium and return to it in the event that something causes a temporary disequilibrium. General equilibrium is when supply and demand are balanced simultaneously in all the markets in an economy. Keynes questioned whether the economy always moved to equilibrium, for instance, to ensure full employment.
 
EQUITYThe capital of a firm, after deducting any liabilities to outsiders other than shareholders, who are typically the legal owners of the firm’s equity
 
EURODOLLARA deposit in dollars held in a bank outside the United States. Such deposits are often set up to avoid taxes and currency exchange costs. They are frequently lent out and have become an important method of credit creation.
 
EXCHANGE CONTROLSLimits on the amount of foreign currency that can be taken into a country, or of domestic currency that can be taken abroad
 
EXPECTATIONSWhat people assume about the future, especially when they make decisions. Economists debate whether people have irrational or rational expectations, or adaptive expectations that change to reflect learning from past mistakes.
 
EXPECTED RETURNSThe capital gain plus income that investors think they will earn by making an investment, at the time they invest.
 
EXPORTSSales abroad. Exports grew steadily as a share of world output during the second half of the 20th century.
 
EXTERNALITYAn economic side-effect. Externalities are costs or benefits arising from an economic activity that affect somebody other than the people engaged in the economic activity and are not reflected fully in prices inefficient use of resources.
 
FACTOR COSTA measure of output reflecting the costs of the factors of production used, rather than market prices, which may differ because of indirect tax and subsidy
 
FACTORS OF PRODUCTIONThe ingredients of economic activity land, labor, capital and enterprise.
 
FACTORY PRICESThe prices charged by producers to wholesalers and retailers. Because these prices are eventually passed on to the end customer, changes in factory prices, also known as producer prices, can be leading indicators of consumer price inflation.
 
FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTCertificate of ownership of a financial asset, such as a bond or a share.
 
FINANCIAL SYSTEMThe firms and institutions that together make it possible for money to make the world go round. This includes financial markets, securities exchanges, banks, pension funds, mutual funds, insurers, national regulators, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States, central banks, governments and multinational institutions, such as the IMF and world bank.
 
FIRMSFor many years, economists had little interest in what happened inside firms, preferring instead to examine the workings of the different sorts of industries in which firms operate, ranging from perfect competition to monopoly.
 
FISCAL NEUTRALITYWhen the net effect of taxation and public spending is neutral, neither stimulating nor dampening demand.
 
FLOTATIONGoing public. When shares in a company are sold to the public for the first time through an initial public offering. The number of shares sold by the original private investors is called the "float". Also, when a bond issue is sold in the financial markets.
 
FREE RIDINGGetting the benefit of a good or service without paying for it, not necessarily illegally. This may be possible because certain types of goods and services are actually hard to charge for a firework display, for instance. Another way to look at this may be that the good or service has a positive externality.
 
FREE ZONECustoms-free Zone
 
FREE-TRADE AREAGroup of countries trading freely
 
GAGEPledge
 
GARANTGuarantor
 
GARANTGuarantor
 
GDPGross domestic product (GDP) refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country standard of living
 
GIFFEN GOODSMerchandise of giffen
 
GILTSCochettes
 
GNIGross national income (GNI) comprises the value of all products and services generated within a country in one year (i.e., its gross domestic product), together with its net income received from other countries (notably interest and dividends). The GNI consists of the personal consumption expenditures, the gross private investment, the government consumption expenditures, the net income from assets abroad (net income receipts), and the gross exports of goods and services, after deducting two components the gross imports of goods and services, and the indirect business taxes. The GNI is similar to the gross national product (GNP), except that in measuring the GNP one does not deduct the indirect business taxes.
 
GNPGross National Product (GNP) is the market value of all products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the residents of a country. Unlike Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP allocates production based on ownership
 
GOUVERNANCEManagement, domination
 
GOVERNMENTCabinet or public political force controlling and directing the country
 
GROWTHIncrease
 
HARD CURRENCYMoney you can trust. A hard currency is expected to retain its value, or even benefit from appreciation against softer currencies. This makes it a popular choice for people involved in international transactions. 
 
HARMONISATIONSynchronization
 
HEDGE FUNDSThese bogey-men of the financial markets are often blamed, usually unfairly, when things go wrong.
 
HOLDINGA group of companies
 
HORIZONTAL EQUITYOne way to keep taxation fair. Horizontal equity means that people with a similar ability to pay taxes should pay the same amount.
 
HORIZONTAL INTEGRATIONMerging with another firm just like yours, for example, two biscuit makers becoming one. Contrast with vertical integration which is merging with a firm at a different stage in the SUPPLY chain. Horizontal integration often raises antitrust concerns, as the combined firm will have a larger market share than either firm did before merging. Also known as job rotation, it is a job enlargement method whereby employees are shifted between various comparable jobs in an effort to prevent boredom and boost morale.
 
HOT MONEYMoney that is held in one currency but is liable to switch to another currency at a moment’s notice in search of the highest available returns, thereby causing the first currency’s exchange rate to plummet.
 
HOUSE PRICESWhen they go through the roof it is usually a warning sign that an economy is overheating. House prices often rise after interest rate reductions, which lower mortgage payments and thus give buyers the ability to fund a larger amount of borrowing and so offer a higher price for their new home.
 
HUMAN CAPITALThe stuff that enables people to earn a living. Human capital can be increased by investing in education, training and health care. The collective knowledge, skills and abilities of an organization’s employees.
 
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEXThe Human Development Index quantifies a country’s development in terms of such things as education, length of life and clean water, as well as income.
 
HYPER-INFLATIONVery, very bad. Although people debate when, precisely, very rapid inflation turns into ­hyper-inflation (a 100% or more increase in price a year, perhaps ) nobody questions that it wreaks huge economic.
 
IMPERFECT COMPETITIONIt describes many real-world markets. Perfectly competitive markets are extremely rare, and few FIRMS enjoy a pure monopoly; OLIGOPOLY is more common
 
IMPORTS Purchases of foreign goods and services the opposite of exports.
 
INCOMEThe flow of money to the  factors of production; wages to labor; profit to enterprise and capital ;interest also to capital; rent to land. Wages left for spending after paying taxes is known as disposable income.
 
INCOME EFFECTA change in the demand for a good or service caused by a change in the income of consumers rather than, say, a change in consumer tastes. Contrast with substitution effect.
 
INCOME TAXA much-loathed method of taxation based on earnings.
 
INCUMBENT ADVANTAGEThe importance of being there already. FIRMS that are in a market can have a significant competitive advantage over aspiring entrants to that market, for instance, through having the opportunity to erect barriers to entry.
 
INDIFFERENCE CURVEA curve that joins together different combinations of goods and SERVICES that would each give the consumer the same amount of satisfaction.
 
INDIRECT TAXATIONTaxes that do not come straight out of a person’s pay packet or assets or out of company profit.
 
INELASTICWhen the supply or demand for something is insensitive to changes in another variable, such as price.
 
INEQUALITYEconomic growth has generally reduced inequality within a country. This has been partly as a result of redistributive tax and benefits systems, which have become so significant that they may now be causing slower growth in some countries. The availability of welfare benefits may have discouraged unemployed people from seeking out a better job; and the high taxes needed to pay for the benefits may have discouraged some wealthy people from working as hard as they would have done under a friendlier tax regime. However, the new economy may see inequality in rich countries widen again, thanks to its alleged winner-takes-all distribution of financial rewards.
 
INFERIOR GOODSProducts that are less in demand as consumers get richer. For normal goods, demand increases as consumers have more to spend
 
INFLATIONRising prices, across the board. Inflation means less bang for your buck, as it erodes the purchasing power of a unit of currency. Inflation usually refers to consumer prices, but it can also be applied to other prices.
 
INFORMATIONThe oil that keeps the economy working smoothly. Economic efficiency is likely to be greatest when information is comprehensive, accurate and cheaply available.
 
INFRASTRUCTUREThe economic arteries and veins. Roads, ports, railways, airports, power lines, pipes and wires that enable people, goods, commodities, water, energy and information to move about efficiently. (organization) system of facilities, equipment and services needed for the operation of an organization. The technology and equipment, and facilities used in BCM activities or impacted by the incident.
 
INNOVATIONA vital contributor to economic growth. The big challenge for firms and governments is to make it happen more often.
 
INSIDER TRADINGInsider trading involves using information that is not in the public domain but that will move the price of a share, bond or currency when it is made public. An insider trade takes place when someone with privileged, confidential access to that information trades to take advantage of the fact that prices will move when the news gets out.
 
INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS Following the tradition of Schumpeter, it views the economy as an evolving system and places a strong emphasis on dynamics, changing structures.
 
INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORSThe big hitters of the financial markets pension funds, fund-management companies, insurance companies, investment banks, hedge funds, charitable endowment trusts.
 
INSURANCEIn economic terms, anything used to reduce the downside of risk. In its most familiar form, insurance is provided through a policy purchased from an insurance company.
 
INTERESTThe cost of borrowing, which compensates lenders for the risk they take in making their money available to borrowers.
 
INTEREST RATEInterest is usually expressed at an annual rate the amount of interest that would be paid during a year divided by the amount of money loaned.
 
INTERNATIONAL AIDA helping hand for poor countries from rich countries. This, at least, is the intention. In practice, in many cases aid has done little good for its intended recipients (improved health care is a notable exception) and has sometimes made matters worse.
 
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUNDThe ability of people to undertake economic transactions with people in other countries free from any restraints imposed by governments or other regulators.
 
INTERVENTIONWhen central banks try to influence an exchange rate by buying the currency they want to appreciate and selling the one they want to weaken.
 
INVESTMENTPutting money to work, in the hope of making even more money. Investment takes two main forms direct spending on buildings, machinery and so forth, and indirect spending on financial securities, such as bonds and shares.
 
INVISIBLE HANDAdam SMITH’s shorthand for the ability of the free market to allocate factors of production, goods and services to their most valuable use. If everybody acts from self-interest, spurred on by the profit motive, then the economy will work more efficiently, and more productively, than it would do were economic activity directed instead by some sort of central planner.
 
J-CURVEThe shape of the trend of a country’s trade balance following a devaluation. A lower exchange rate initially means cheaper exports and more expensive imports, making the current account worse.
 
JOB SEARCHThe time taken to find a new job. Because some people will devote all their time to this search, there will always be some frictional unemployment, even when there is otherwise full employment.
 
JOINT SUPPLYSome products or production processes have more than one use.
 
KEYNESIANBranch of Eco. Based on Keynes’s ideas
 
KLEPTOCRACYCorrupt government
 
KONDRATIEFF WAVECapitalism as Stable system supported by Kondratieff
 
LABOROne of the factors of production
 
LABOR INTENSIVEProduction process that involves large amounts of labor
 
LABOR MARKET FLEXIBILITYFlexible labor market that facilitates for firms dealing with employees and number of work hours
 
LABOR THEORY OF VALUEThe value of any good or service depends on how much labor it uses up
 
LAFFER CURVELink of average tax rates to total tax
 
LAGGING INDICATEURSChanges in business cycle or inflation
 
LAISSEZ-FAIRENo government interference
 
LANDSupply one of the factors of production
 
LAND TAXTaxes should be levied only on the value of land
 
LAW ECONOMICSLaws can be an important source of economic efficiency or inefficiency
 
LEADING INDICATORSGroups of statistics that point to the future direction of economy and business cycle
 
LENDER OF LAST RESORTCredit creation made by Central Bank
 
LEVERAGELink of own business and borrowed. Buying an ASSET in one market and simultaneously selling an identical asset in another market at a higher price.
 
LEVERAGE BUY-OUTBuying a company using borrowed money
 
LIBERAL ECONOMICSLaissez-faire capitalism
 
LIBERALISATIONPromoting liberal economics by limiting government’s role
 
LIBORLondon Interbank offered rate
 
LIFEMake best decisions on how much to pay to reduce the loss of life
 
LIFE-CYCLE HYPOTHESISExplains how people split their income between spending saving borrowing
 
LIQUIDITYHow easily an asset can be spent
 
LIQUIDITY PREFERENCEProportion of assets that firms and individuals choose to hold
 
LIQUIDITY TRAPWhen monetary policy becomes impotent
 
LOCK-INPath dependence
 
LONG RUNWhen we are all dead according to KEYNES
 
LUMP OF LABOR FALLCYNotion that there is a fixed amount of work to be done
 
LUMP-SUM TAXSame amount of tax for everybody regardless of income
 
LUXURIESGood services that have a high elasticity of demand
 
MARGINAL COSTThe change in total cost (or total variable cost) resulting from a change in the quantity of output produced by a firm in the short run.
 
MARGINAL PRODUCTThe change in the quantity of total product resulting from a unit change in a variable input, keeping all other inputs unchanged.
 
MARGINAL UTILITY CURVEA curve illustrating the relation between the marginal utility obtained from consuming an additional unit of good and the quantity of the good consumed.
 
MARKETThe organized exchange of commodities (goods, services, or resources) between buyers and sellers within a specific geographic area and during a given period of time. Markets are the exchange between buyers who want a good--the demand-side of the market--and the sellers who have it--the supply--side of the market.
 
MARKET DEMANDThe total demand of every individual willing and able to buy a good. Market demand is found by combining the individual demands of everyone willing and able to buy a particular good
 
MARKET EQUILIBRIUMThe state of equilibrium that exists when the opposing market forces of demand and supply exactly offset each other and there is no inherent tendency for change.
 
MARKET FAILUREA condition in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction
 
MARKET POWERThe ability of buyers or sellers to exert influence over the price or quantity of a good, service, or commodity exchanged in a market.
 
MARKET SUPPLYThe total supply of every seller willing and able to sell a good. Market supply is found by combining the individual supplies of every firm or producer willing and able to sell a particular good
 
MATERIALSThe stuff used in the production of tangible products that become the tangible products.
 
MICROECONOMIC POLICYGovernment policy aimed at individual parts of the economy, especially industries, markets, businesses, and households
 
MONEYAnything that is generally accepted in exchange as payment for goods and services
 
NATIONAL ACCOUNTSAre a measure of macroeconomic categories of production and purchase in a nation
 
NATIONALIZATIONThe process of a national government taking over the ownership of a private business or industry, usually in conjunction with a major revolution that establishes a communistic or socialist command economy.
 
NATURAL INCREASEIs a population increase due to more births and less mortality
 
NEEDThis is often thought of as a physiological or biological requirement for maintaining life, such as the need for air, water, food, shelter, and sleep. Satisfaction is achieved by fulfilling needs
 
NEGATIVE RELATIONA relation, either a principle or hypothesis, in which an increase one variable is associated with a decrease in the other variable
 
NEUTRALITYMoney is said to be neutral [in a model] if changes in the level of nominal money have no effect on the real equilibrium
 
NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONIs one that has committed legally not to distribute any net earnings (profits) to individuals with control over it such as members, officers, directors, or trustees.
 
NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONIs a continuous distribution of major importance
 
NORMAL GOODA good for which an increase in income causes an increase in demand, or a rightward shift in the demand curve
 
NORMAL PROFITOpportunity cost of using entrepreneurial abilities in the production of a good, or the profit that could have been received in another business venture.
 
NORMATIVE ECONOMICSA normative statement is based on values and can be proved neither right or wrong
 
OECDThe Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
 
OFFSHOREWhere the usual rules of a person or firm’s home country do not apply.
 
OLIGOPOLYWhen a few firms dominate a market.
 
OPECThe Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
 
OPEN ECONOMYAn economy that allows the unrestricted flow of people, CAPITAL, goods and SERVICES across its borders; the opposite of a CLOSED ECONOMY.
 
OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONSCENTRAL BANKS buying and selling SECURITIES in the open market, as a way of controlling INTEREST rates or the GROWTH of the MONEY SUPPLY.
 
OPPORTUNITY COSTThe true cost of something is what you give up to get it.
 
OPTIMAL CURRENCY AREAA geographical area within which it would pay to have a single currency.
 
OPTIMUMAs good as it gets, given the constraints you are operating within.
 
OUTCOMESomething that follows from an action, dispute, situation, result, consequence.
 
OUTPUTThe fruit of economic activity whatever is produced by using the FACTORS OF PRODUCTION.
 
OUTPUT GAPHow far an economy’s current OUTPUT is below what it would be at full CAPACITY.
 
OVER PRICETo put too high a price or value on.
 
OVERHEATINGWhen an economy is growing too fast and its productive capacity cannot keep up with demands.
 
PARETO EFFICIENCYA situation in which nobody can be made better off without making somebody else worse off.
 
PATH DEPENDENCEHistory matters. Where you have been in the past determines where you are now and where you can go in future.
 
PEAK PRICINGWhen CAPACITY is fixed and DEMAND varies during a time period, it may make sense to charge above-AVERAGE PRICES when demand peaks.
 
PERCENTAGE POINTA unit of size, a one-hundredth of the total. Not to be confused with percentage change.
 
PERFECT COMPETITIONThe most competitive market imaginable.
 
POPULATIONFor what economists have had to say about this, see DEMOGRAPHICS.
 
POSITIVE ECONOMICSECONOMICS that describes the world as it is, rather than trying to change it.
 
POVERTY TRAPIt’s another name of the unemployment trap.
 
PREDATORY PRICESCharging low PRICES now so you can charge much higher prices later.
 
PREFERENCEWhat consumers want.
 
PRICEIn equilibrium, what balances SUPPLY and DEMAND.
 
PRICE ELASTICITYA measure of the responsiveness of DEMAND to a change in PRICE.
 
PRIVATE EQUITYWhen a firm’s SHARES are held privately and not traded in the public markets.
 
PRODUCER SURPLUSThe difference between what a supplier is paid for a good or service and what it cost to SUPPLY.
 
PROFITThe main reason FIRMS exist.
 
QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEYThe foundation stone of MONETARISM. The theory says that the quantity of MONEY available in an economy determines the value of money. Increases in the MONEY SUPPLY are the main cause of INFLATION.
 
QUARTILEPart of the “ilea” family that signposts positions on a scale of numbers (see also PERCENTILE).
 
QUEUEINGUsually a queue reflects a PRICE that is set too low, so that DEMAND exceeds SUPPLY, so some customers have to wait to buy the product. But a queue may also be the result of deliberate rationing by a producer, perhaps to attract attention
 
QUOTAA form of PROTECTIONISM. A country imposes limits on the number of goods that can be imported from another country.
 
RANDOM WALKImpossible to predict the next step.
 
RATE OF RETURNA way to measure economic success, albeit one that can be manipulated quite easily. It is calculated by expressing the economic gain (usually PROFIT) as a percentage of the CAPITAL used to produce it.
 
RATION EXPECTATIONSHow some economists believe that people think about the future.
 
RATIONINGAlthough economists say that rationing is what the PRICE MECHANISM does, what most people think of as rationing is an alternative to letting PRICES determine how scarce economic resources, goods and SERVICES are distributed (see also QUEUEING).
 
REAL BALANCE EFFECTFalling INFLATION and INTEREST rates lead to higher spending
 
REAL EXCHANGE RATEAn EXCHANGE RATE that has been adjusted to take account of any difference in the rate of INFLATION in the two countries whose currency is being exchanged.
 
RECIPROCITYDoing as you are done by. A grants B certain privileges on the condition that B grants the same privileges to A. A relationship between states or other taxing jurisdictions whereby privileges granted by one are returned by the other under a reciprocal agreement.
 
REFLATIONPolicies to pump up DEMAND and thus boost the level of economic activity.
 
REGIONAL POLICYA policy intended to boost economic activity in a specific geographical area that is not an entire country and, typically, is in worse economic shape than nearby areas.
 
REGRESSION ANALYSISNumber-crunching to discover the relationship between different economic variables. A statistical measure used to discover relationships between variables such as performance ratings and promotions.
 
REGRESSIVE TAXA tax that takes a smaller proportion of INCOME as the taxpayer’s income rises
 
REGULATIONRules governing the activities of private-sector enterprises.
 
REGULATORY ABRITAGEExploiting loopholes in REGULATION, and perhaps making the regulation useless in the process.
 
REGULATORY FAILUREWhen REGULATION generates more economic costs than benefits.
 
REGULATORY RISKA RISK faced by private-sector FIRMS that regulatory changes will hurt their business.
 
RELATIF INCOME HYPOTHESISPeople often care more about their relative well being than their absolute well being.
 
SALES TAXESThe new Fairfax proposal under which you would never pay income taxes again.
 
SATISFACTION OF ECONOMIC WANTSLaw the payment of a debt or fulfillment of an obligation or claim.
 
SATURATION POINTWhen a product, in its life cycle, reaches the point where all potential demand has been matched by supply.
 
SATURATION THRESHOLDThe economic impact of tariffs such as the tariff put on Canadian softwood lumber.
 
SATURED MARKETOffer so much of a product for sale that there is more than people want to buy.
 
SAVINGThe act of abstaining from consumption.
 
SAVINGS ACCOUNTA bank or building society account where the rate tends to be higher than current accounts.
 
SCARCITYA small and inadequate amount
 
SCARES GOODSAmount availableless than the amount demanded.
 
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENTA theory that suggests that there is a BEST way to perform work tasks.
 
SEAL OF APPROVALA mark or sign that shows that an organization has tested a product and it meets their standards.
 
SEATA position as a member of a financial market.
 
SECOND-TIER SHAREOne of the shares in companies that are not among the biggest and most profitable on a particular stock market.
 
SECOND-TIER STOCKShares in companies that are not bought and sold on the main stock market in a particular place.
 
SECOND-TIER SUPPLIERA company that sells and delivers materials or goods to a first-tier supplier.
 
SECONDARY OFFERINGThe sale of previously issued securities by a large shareholder.
 
SECONDSGoods that are sold cheaply because they are damaged or not of the usual quality.
 
SECURED LIABILITIESDebts to lenders, for example in the form of bonds, that are secured on particular assets of the company.
 
SECURED LOANA loan where the borrower has promised to give the lender certain assets if they fail to make repayments.
 
SECURITYA financial asset such as a share or bond.
 
SEED MONEYInitial investment in a start-up company.
 
SELLER MARKETA market in which both bid and asked prices.
 
SHAREHOLDERAn owner of shares in a limited company. In the US, called a stockholder. An individual or corporation that owns shares in the corporation.
 
SHORT-RUNRelating to or extending over a limited period
 
SHORTAGEA situation in which demand exceeds supply at the current price
 
SIMPLE INTERESTInterest paid on the principal alone
 
SOCIALISMA political theory advocating state ownership of industry.
 
SOFTWOOD LUMBER DISPUTE AND TARIFFSThe economic impact of tariffs such as the tariff put on Canadian softwood lumber.
 
SOFTWOOD LUMBER DISPUTE RESOURCESWhen a product, in its life cycle, reaches the point where all potential demand has been matched by supply.
 
SPREADDistribute or disperse widely
 
STABILITYLimiting macroeconomic fluctuations in prices, employment, and production.
 
STADIUMSThe issue of government subsidies of sports stadiums.
 
STAGFLATIONA period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation).
 
STAGNATIONA state of inactivity (in business or art etc)
 
STAMP DUTY (EQUITIES)A government tax on share transactions
 
STATIC EFFICIENCYThe efficiency of the economy with given technology; taxes used to finance basic research and monopoly power resulting from patents cause a loss in static efficiency.
 
STOCK MARKET AND FINANCIAL ECONOMICS Learn about how the stock market works and its relationship to the economy.
 
STOCK MARKETS AND ECONOMIC INDICATORSShows which economic indicators, such as the stock prices, are helpful in determining if the economy is going into a boom or a bust.
 
STOCK MARKETS AND RECESSIONSMake changes in stock prices cause recession and look at the relationship between the stock market and the economy.
 
STOCK PRICESInterpreting the Price Earnings Ratio" explains why the Price Earnings ratio (P E ratio) can often predict future price changes of stocks.
 
STOCK TURNThe total value of stock sold in a year divided by the average value of goods in stock.
 
STRATEGISTSomeone whose job is developing a plan, especially in business, political, or military matters.
 
STRATEGYThe pattern of decisions and actions that are taken by a business to achieve its goals and objectives. The approach or approaches that serve to fulfill the mission and that will be used to achieve organizational or programmatic goals.
 
STUDENT RESOURCESHelp you get an A in economics with term paper help and whatever economics Data for your economics or econometrics project.
 
SUBSIDYA grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public.
 
SUBSISTENCEA small amount of money or food that is just enough to survive on.
 
SUBSISTENCE ECONOMYAn economy composed mostly of subsistence farmers.
 
SUPPLY PRICE ELASTICITYThe Price Elasticity of Supply measures the rate of response of quantity demand due to a price change.
 
SURPLUS VALUEThe value of what workers produce in excess of what they consume or what they need to live on.
 
TANGIBLE ASSETSAssets you can touch buildings, machinery, gold, works of art, and so on. Contrast with intangible assets.
 
TARGET BUYERThe type of person that you aim to sell your products or services to.
 
TARGET MARKETThe group of people for whom a particular product is designed.
 
TARIFFA government tax on imports or exports
 
TAX AVOIDANCEDoing everything possible within the law to reduce your tax bill.
 
TAX BASECollective value of taxable assets
 
TAX BITEThe part of someone income or other money that is taken in the form of tax.
 
TAX BREAKA special reduction in taxes that the government allows for a particular purpose.
 
TAX BURDENTotal tax paid in a period as a proportion of total income in that period.
 
TAX DODGEAn illegal way of paying less tax.
 
TAX EXPENDITUREThe revenue lost from a tax subsidy
 
TAX POLICY AND MACROECONOMIC GROWTHTax policies and changes in tax policy large affect the rate of growth of an economy and the distribution of wealth of a country.
 
TAX SHIELDThe reduction in income taxes that results from taking an allowable deduction from taxable income.
 
TAX SUBSIDIESSubsidies provided through the tax system to particular industries or to particular expenditures, in the form of favorable tax treatment.
 
TAXABLE ACQUISITIONA merger or consolidation that is not a tax-fee acquisition.
 
TAXABLE INCOMEGross income less a set of deductions.
 
TAXABLE TRANSACTIONAny transaction that is not tax-free to the parties involved
 
TERM PREMIUMSExcess of the yields to maturity on long-term bonds over those of short-term bonds.
 
TERMS OF SALEConditions on which a firm proposes to sell its goods services for cash or credit.
 
TEST AIDSA company that is not considered to be one of the biggest or most important.
 
THIN MARKETSMarkets with relatively few buyers and sellers
 
THIRD WORLD ECONOMICSResearch on the economies of developing countries is a hot topic in Economics due to the current debate about globalization.
 
TICKThe smallest unit of price change in a financial market.
 
TIGHTNESSA labor market if employers have trouble filling jobs.
 
TIME CONSTRAINTSThe limitations on consumption of different goods imposed by the fact that households have only a limited amount of time to spend (twenty-four hours a day).
 
TIME DEPOSITSThe money stored in the form of savings accounts at banks.
 
TIME INCONSISTENCYA phenomenon that occurs when it is not in the best interest of a player to carry out a threat or promise that was initially designed to influence the other player’s actions
 
TIME PREFERENCEAn intense preference to receive goods or services immediately.
 
TIME SERIESA stochastic process where the time index takes on a finite or countable infinite set of values.
 
TIME VALUE OF MONEYThe fact that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future
 
TOPOLOGYSet of subsets of X satisfying several criteria.
 
TOTAL ASSET TURNOVERThe ratio of net sales to total assets.
 
TOTAL COSTSocial benefits paid to individuals or households by government.
 
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENTA managerial approach which focuses on quality and aims to improve the effectiveness, flexibility, and competitiveness of the business. A structured system that satisfies internal and external customers and suppliers by integrating the business environment, continuous improvement and breakthroughs with development, improvement and maintenance cycles.
 
TOTAL SOCIAL SURPLUSTotal benefits to society from consuming a good minus total costs to society from producing it.
 
TRACEThe trace of a square matrix A is the sum of the elements on its diagonal.
 
TRADEThe commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services.
 
TRADE CREDITCredit granted by a firm to another firm for the purchase of goods or services.
 
TRADE CYCLEThe fluctuation of national income around its long term trend.
 
TRADE DEBTORSRefer to amounts of money that is owed by customers clients who have purchased something (goods services) from the firm.
 
TRADE DEFICITThe excess of imports over exports
 
TRADE DISCOUNTA lower price offered by a producer to a shop or business.
 
TRADE DIVERSIONTrade that is diverted away from outside countries as a result of lowering tariffs between the members of a trading bloc.
 
TRADE DRAFTA draft addressed to a commercial enterprise.
 
TRADE HOUSEA firm which deals in actual commodities.
 
TRADE IN GOODS ( BALANCE OF TRADE)The difference between imports and exports of physical products.
 
TRADE IN SERVICES( NET INVISIBLES)The difference between the import and export of services.
 
TRADE-OFFSThe amount of one good (or one desirable objective) that must be given up to get more of another good (or to attain more of another desirable objective).
 
TRADEMARKIs a legal protection afforded names, symbols, and other specific identities assigned to a product.
 
TRADING BLOCSCountries that join together to increase trade between their members and restrict trade with non-members.
 
TRADING CONCERNA firm that derives its business from selling products.
 
TRADING COSTSCosts of buying and selling marketable securities and borrowing.
 
TRADITIONAL THEORY OF THE FIRMThe analysis of pricing and output decisions of the firm various market conditions, assuming the firm wishes to maximize profit.
 
TRANSACTION DATEThe date on which an specified transaction occurred.
 
TRANSACTION DEMAND (FOR MONEY)The need to accommodate a firm expected cash transactions.
 
TRANSACTION LOANA loan extended by a bank for a specific purpose.
 
TRANSACTIONSTwo or more entries made in a journal which when looked at together reflect an original document such as a sales invoice or purchase receipt.
 
TRANSACTIONS COSTSThe extra costs (beyond the price of the purchase) of conducting a transaction, whether those costs are money, time, or inconvenience.
 
TRANSACTIONS MOTIVEA desire to hold cash for the purpose of conducting cash based transactions.
 
TRANSFER AGENTIndividual or institution appointed by a company to look after the transfer of securities.
 
TRANSFER PAYMENTSSocial benefits paid to individuals or households by government.
 
TRANSFER PRICEThe price at which one unit of a firm sells goods or services to another unit of the same firm.
 
TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONFirms that have operations in more than one country.
 
TRANSPARENCYPermitting the free passage of electromagnetic radiation.
 
TRANSPORTATION (FREIGHT) OUTThat part of cost of the selling of the product and therefore are included as a selling expense.
 
TRANSVERSALITYCondition of limits solutions to an infinite period dynamic optimization problem.
 
TREASURY BILLA short-term obligation that is not interest-bearing (it is purchased at a discount); can be traded on a discount basis for 91 days.
 
TREASURY STOCKCommon stock that has been repurchased by the company and held in the company treasury.
 
TRIAL BALANCEA statement which lists all the balances on all the accounts in the double entry system.
 
TROUGHThe transition point between economic recession and recovery.
 
TRUE LEASEA contract that qualifies as a valid lease agreement under the Internal Revenue code.
 
TRUST DEEDAgreement between trustee and borrower setting out terms of bond.
 
TRUST RECEIPTReceipt for goods that are to be held in trust for the lender.
 
TRUSTSOrganizations that designed to allow an individual or group owning a small fraction of the total industry to exercise control.
 
TURNAROUNDThe reversal and other possible changes to the unfavorable circumstances relating to the business where a specific investment opportunity may possibly exist.
 
TURNAROUND TIMETime available or needed to affect a turnaround.
 
TURNOVERThe income of a business over a period of time (usually a year). HRM Describes changes in the work force resulting from voluntary or involuntary resignations.
 
TWO-PART TARIFFA method of charging for a good or a service.
 
TWO-TIER TAX SYSTEMA method of taxation in which the income going to shareholders is taxed twice.
 
TYCOONSomeone who is successful in business and industry and has a lot of money and power.
 
UNEMPLOYMENTThe number of people of working age without a job is usually expressed as an unemployment rate, a percentage of the workforce.
 
UNEMPLOYMENT TRAPWhen unemployed people who receive benefits, either from the GOVERNMENT or from private CHARITY, are deterred from taking a new job because the reduction or removal of benefit if they do will make them worse off.
 
VALUE ADDEDThis usually refers to FIRMS, where it is defined as the value of the firm’s OUTPUT minus the value of all its inputs purchased from other firms
 
VALUE AT RISKValue at risk models, widely used for RISK MANAGEMENT by BANKS and other financial institutions, use complex computer algorithms to calculate the maximum that the institution could lose in a single day’s trading
 
VELOCITY OF CIRCULATIONThe speed with which MONEY whizzes around the economy, or, put another way, the number of times it changes hands
 
VENTURE CAPITALPRIVATE EQUITY to help new companies grow. A valuable alternative source of finance for ENTREPRENEURS, who might otherwise have to rely on a loan from a probably RISK AVERSE bank manager
 
VERTICAL EQUITYOne way to keep TAXATION fair. Vertical equity is the principle that people with a greater ability to pay should hand over more tax to the GOVERNMENT than those with a lesser ability to pay.
 
VERTICAL INTEGRATIONMerging with a company at a different stage in the production process, for instance, a car maker merging with a car retailer or a parts supplier
 
VISIBLE TRADEPhysical EXPORTS and IMPORTS, such as coal, computer chips and cars.
 
VOLATILITYThe most widely accepted measure of RISK in FINANCIAL MARKETS is the amount by which the price of a security swings up and down
 
VOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENTUnemployment through opting not to work, even though there are jobs available
 
WAGESThe price of Labor
 
WEALTH EFFECTAs people get wealthier, they consume more. This wealth effect has important consequences for MONETARY POLICY.
 
WEALTH TAXIn most countries, the majority of wealth is concentrated in a fairly small number of hands. This makes a wealth tax appealing to politicians, as it should allow substantial amounts of revenue to be raised from comparatively few people, allowing the TAX BURDEN on the majority of the POPULATION to be kept down.
 
X-EFFICIENCYProducing OUTPUT at the minimum possible cost
 
XCStock Exchange, without coupon
 
YEAR END ADJUSTMENTS Is the process of adjusting the entry to an account at the end of the calendaring order to properly state it for financial statement preparation purposes.
 
YIELDThe return from an asset or service provided
 
YIELD OF MATURITY (YTM)Refers to the effective rate on a bond.
 
YIELD VARIANCEThe effect of varying the total input of a factor of production 
 
YTDYear to date
 
ZBA-ZERO BASED ACCOUNTIs often used in relation to a checking account.
 
ZBB-ZERO BASED BUDGETThis is a budgeting method where the budget starts at zero and each item must be justified before it is included in the budget. 
 
ZEROthe starting or centre point for values on a counter, scale, or gauge
 
ZERO BASED BUDGETINGA budgeting method where no money is allocated for costs
 
ZERO GROWTH RATENo increase in growth or development.
 
ZERO HOURTime when something important will occur.
 
ZERO RATEDThe buyer does not have to pay value added tax (VAT)
 
ZOLLVEREINCustoms union
 
 
EMS
ENVIRONMENTSurrounding in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans, and their interrelation
 
ENVIRONMENT ASPECTSElement of an organization activities or products or services that can interact with the environment
 
ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS)Part of an organization management system used to develop and implement its environment policy and mange its environmental aspects
 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTAny change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization environment aspects
 
ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVEOverall environmental goal, consistent with the environment policy, that and organization sets itself to achieve
 
ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCEMeasurable results of an organization management of its environmental aspects
 
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICYOverall intentions and direction of an organization related to its environment performance as formally expressed by the top management
 
ENVIRONMENTAL TARGETDetailed performance requirement, applicable to the organization or parts thereof, that arises from the environment objectives and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve those objectives
 
PREVENTION OF POLLUTIONUse of processes, practices, techniques, materials, products, services or energy to avoid, reduce or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts
 
 
EnvMS
AUDIT(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- systematic, independent and documented process (3.3.5) for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled. Note 1 to entry: An internal audit is conducted by the organization (3.1.4) itself, or by an external party on its behalf. Note 2 to entry: An audit can be a combined audit (combining two or more disciplines). Note 3 to entry: Independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited or freedom from bias and conflict of interest. Note 4 to entry: Audit evidence consists of records, statements of fact or other information which are relevant to the audit criteria and are verifiable; and audit criteria are the set of policies, procedures or requirements (3.2.8) used as a reference against which audit evidence is compared, as defined in ISO 19011:2011, 3.3 and 3.2 respectively.
 
COMPETENCE(ISO14001:2015-3.3.1)- ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results
 
COMPLIANCE OBLIGATIONS(ISO14001:2015-3.2.9)- legal requirements and other requirements (admitted term). legal requirements (3.2.8) that an organization (3.1.4) has to comply with and other requirements that an organization has to or chooses to comply with. Note 1 to entry: Compliance obligations are related to the environmental management system (3.1.2). Note 2 to entry: Compliance obligations can arise from mandatory requirements, such as applicable laws and regulations, or voluntary commitments, such as organizational and industry standards, contractual relationships, codes of practice and agreements with community groups or non-governmental organizations.
 
CONFORMITY(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- fulfilment of a requirement (3.2.8)
 
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- recurring activity to enhance performance (3.4.10).Note 1 to entry: Enhancing performance relates to the use of the environmental management system (3.1.2) to enhance environmental performance (3.4.11) consistent with the organizations (3.1.4) environmental policy (3.1.3). Note 2 to entry: The activity need not take place in all areas simultaneously, or without interruption.
 
CORRECTIVE ACTION(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity (3.4.3) and to prevent recurrence. Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.
 
DOCUMENTED INFORMATION(ISO14001:2015-3.3.2)- information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1.4) and the medium on which it is contained. Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media, and from any source. Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to: the environmental management system (3.1.2), including related processes (3.3.5); information created in order for the organization to operate (can be referred to as documentation); evidence of results achieved (can be referred to as records).
 
EFFECTIVENESS(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved
 
ENVIRONMENT(ISO14001:2015-3.2.1)- surroundings in which an organization (3.1.4) operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships. Note 1 to entry: Surroundings can extend from within an organization to the local, regional and global system. Note 2 to entry: Surroundings can be described in terms of biodiversity, ecosystems, climate or other characteristics.
 
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT(ISO14001:2015-3.2.2)- element of an organizations (3.1.4) activities or products or services that interacts or can interact with the environment (3.2.1). Note 1 to entry: An environmental aspect can cause (an) environmental impact(s) (3.2.4). A significant environmental aspect is one that has or can have one or more significant environmental impact(s). Note 2 to entry: Significant environmental aspects are determined by the organization applying one or more criteria.
 
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION(ISO14001:2015-3.2.3)- state or characteristic of the environment (3.2.1) as determined at a certain point in time
 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT(ISO14001:2015-3.2.4)- change to the environment (3.2.1), whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organizations (3.1.4) environmental aspects (3.2.2)
 
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(ISO14001:2015-3.1.2)- part of the management system (3.1.1) used to manage environmental aspects (3.2.2), fulfil compliance obligations (3.2.9), and address risks and opportunities (3.2.11)
 
ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVE(ISO14001:2015-3.2.6)- objective (3.2.5) set by the organization (3.1.4) consistent with its environmental policy (3.1.3)
 
ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- performance (3.4.10) related to the management of environmental aspects (3.2.2). Note 1 to entry: For an environmental management system (3.1.2), results can be measured against the organizations (3.1.4) environmental policy (3.1.3), environmental objectives (3.2.6) or other criteria, using indicators (3.4.7).
 
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY(ISO14001:2015-3.1.3)- intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.4) related to environmental performance (3.4.11), as formally expressed by its top management (3.1.5)
 
INDICATOR(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- measurable representation of the condition or status of operations, management or conditions. [SOURCE: ISO 14031:2013, 3.15]
 
INTERESTED PARTY(ISO14001:2015-3.1.6)- person or organization (3.1.4) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or activity. EXAMPLE Customers, communities, suppliers, regulators, non-governmental organizations, investors and employees. Note 1 to entry: To perceive itself to be affected means the perception has been made known to the organization.
 
LIFE CYCLE(ISO14001:2015-3.3.3)- consecutive and interlinked stages of a product (or service) system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal. Note 1 to entry: The life cycle stages include acquisition of raw materials, design, production, transportation/ delivery, use, end-of-life treatment and final disposal. [SOURCE: ISO 14044:2006, 3.1, modified ? The words (or service) have been added to the definition and Note 1 to entry has been added.]
 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(ISO14001:2015-3.1.1)- set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1.4) to establish policies and objectives (3.2.5) and processes (3.3.5) to achieve those objectives. Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines (e.g. quality, environment, occupational health and safety, energy, financial management). Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organizations structure, roles and responsibilities, planning and operation, performance evaluation and improvement. Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system can include the whole of the organization, specific and identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more functions across a group of organizations.
 
MEASUREMENT(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- process (3.3.5) to determine a value
 
MONITORING(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- determining the status of a system, a process (3.3.5) or an activity. Note 1 to entry: To determine the status, there might be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.
 
NONCONFORMITY(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.2.8). Note 1 to entry: Nonconformity relates to requirements in this International Standard and additional environmental management system (3.1.2) requirements that an organization (3.1.4) establishes for itself.
 
OBJECTIVE(ISO14001:2015-3.2.5)- result to be achieved. Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational. Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product, service and process (3.3.5)). Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an operational criterion, as an environmental objective (3.2.6), or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal, or target).
 
ORGANIZATION(ISO14001:2015-3.1.4)- person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives (3.2.5). Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to sole-trader, company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporatedor not, public or private.
 
OUTSOURCE (ISO14001:2015-3.3.4)- (verb) make an arrangement where an external organization (3.1.4) performs part of an organizations function or process (3.3.5). Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system (3.1.1), although the outsourced function or process is within the scope.
 
PERFORMANCE(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- measurable result. Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings. Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes (3.3.5), products (including services), systems or organizations (3.1.4).
 
PREVENTION OF POLLUTION(ISO14001:2015-3.2.7)- use of processes (3.3.5), practices, techniques, materials, products, services or energy to avoid, reduce or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.2.4). Note 1 to entry: Prevention of pollution can include source reduction or elimination; process, product or service changes; efficient use of resources; material and energy substitution; reuse; recovery; recycling, reclamation; or treatment.
 
PROCESS(ISO14001:2015-3.3.5)- set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs Note 1 to entry: A process can be documented or not.
 
REQUIREMENT(ISO14001:2015-3.2.8)- need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory. Note 1 to entry: Generally implied means that it is custom or common practice for the organization (3.1.4) and interested parties (3.1.6) that the need or expectation under consideration is implied. Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information (3.3.2). Note 3 to entry: Requirements other than legal requirements become obligatory when the organization decides to comply with them.
 
RISK(ISO14001:2015-3.2.10)- effect of uncertainty. Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected positive or negative. Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood. Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential events (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.5.1.3) and consequences (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.3), or a combination of these. Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated likelihood (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.1) of occurrence.
 
RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES(ISO14001:2015-3.2.11)- potential adverse effects (threats) and potential beneficial effects (opportunities)
 
TOP MANAGEMENT(ISO14001:2015-3.1.5)- person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.4) at the highest level. Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the organization. Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system (3.1.1) covers only part of an organization, then top management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization.
 
 
FSMS
ACTION-LIMIT VALUEA value for the product or process parameter under consideration, deduced from the critical limit value, which indicates that an intervention in the process is required.
 
ASPECTAn element of the food business operation (products, processes, PRP, services) that can interact with the food safety.
 
CERTIFICATIONAction by a third party demonstrating that adequate confidence is given that a duly identified product, process or service conforms with a specific standard or other normative document.
 
CONTROL (NOUN)The state wherein correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met.
 
CONTROL (VERB)To take all necessary actions to ensure and maintain compliance with criteria established in the HACCP plan.
 
CONTROL MEASUREAny action and activity that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
 
CONTROL MEASURE, GENERALA measure to control a specific part of the PRP.
 
CONTROL MEASURE, SPECIFICA measure to control a CCP.
 
CORRECTIONAction taken to eliminate a detected nonconformity. For the purposes of ISO 22000, a correction relates to the handling of potentially unsafe products and can, therefore, be made in conjunction with a corrective action. A correction may be, for example, reprocessing, further processing, and or elimination of the adverse consequences of the nonconformity (such as disposal for other use or specific labeling).
 
CORRECTIVE ACTIONAction taken to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity or other undesirable situation. NOTE 1 Nonconformity may have more than one cause. [ISO 9000 2000, definition 3.6.5]. NOTE 2 Corrective action includes cause analysis and is taken to prevent recurrence.
 
CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (CCP)A step at which it is essential that a specific control measure is applied to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce the risk to an acceptable level (see also Control measure, specific)
 
CRITICAL LIMITCriterion that separates the acceptable from the unacceptable. NOTE Critical limits are established to determine whether a CCP (3.10) remains in control. If a critical limit is exceeded or violated, the products affected are deemed to be potentially unsafe.
 
END PRODUCTA product that will undergo no further processing or transformation by the organization. NOTE A product that undergoes further processing or transformation by another organization is an end product within the context of the first organization and a raw material or ingredient in the context of the second organization.
 
FLOW DIAGRAM (HACCP)A systematic representation of the sequence of steps or operations used in the preparation, processing, manufacturing, packaging, storage, transportation, distribution, handling or offering for sale of a particular food item.
 
FLOW DIAGRAM (ISO22000)A schematic, systematic presentation of the sequence and interactions of steps in a process. A flow diagram usually takes the form of a flowchart, where all steps in a process and their inputs and outputs (including byproducts and waste) are shown as boxes connected by unidirectional arrows.
 
FOOD BUSINESS OPERATORThe person or persons responsible for ensuring that the requirements of the food legislation are met within the food business under his their control.
 
FOOD CHAINA sequence of stages and operations involved in the production, processing, distribution, storage, and handling of food and or its ingredients, from primary production to consumption. NOTE 1 This includes the production of feed for food-producing animals and for animals intended for food production. NOTE 2 The food chain also includes the production of materials intended to be directly in contact with food or raw materials.
 
FOOD HANDLERAny person who directly handles packaged or unpacked food, food equipment and utensils, or supplies and is therefore expected to comply with food hygiene requirements.
 
FOOD HYGIENEAll conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain.
 
FOOD SAFETYAssurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and or eaten according to its intended use.
 
FOOD SAFETY HAZARDBiological, chemical, physical agent in food, or condition of food, with the potential to cause an adverse health effect. NOTE 1 In the context of food safety, the term “hazard” means a function of the probability of an adverse health effect and the severity of that effect (death, hospitalization, absence from work, etc.) when exposed to a specified hazard. NOTE 2 In the context of food safety, “food safety hazards” are those that may be present in and or on feed and feed ingredients and that may subsequently be transferred to food through animal consumption of feed and may thus have the potential to cause an adverse human health effect. In the context of operations other than those directly handling feed and food (e.g. producers of packaging materials, cleaning agents, etc.), relevant food safety hazards are those hazards that can be directly or indirectly transferred to food because of the intended use of the provided products and or services and thus can have the potential to cause an adverse human health effect.
 
FOOD SAFETY POLICYFOOD SAFETY POLICYOverall intentions and direction of an organization related to food safety (3.1) as formally expressed by top management.
 
FOOD SUITABILITYAssurance that food is acceptable for human consumption according to its intended use.
 
GENERAL CONTROL MEASUREsee Control measure, general
 
HACCP(Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) A system which identifies, evaluates and controls hazards which are significant for food safety.
 
HACCP AUDITA systematic and independent examination to determine whether the HACCP system, including the HACCP plan and related results, comply with planned arrangements, are implemented effectively and are suitable for the achievement of its objectives. Note Examination of the Hazard Analysis is an essential element of the HACCP audit.
 
HACCP BASED FOOD SAFETY SYSTEM(a HACCP system) The organisational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to execute the HACCP plan(s) and meet its objectives.
 
HACCP PLANA document prepared in accordance with the principles of HACCP to ensure control of hazards which are significant for food safety in the segment of the food chain under consideration.
 
HACCP TEAMGroup of individuals (multi-disciplinary) who develop, implement and maintain a HACCP system.
 
HAZARDA biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.
 
HAZARD ANALYSISThe process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards and conditions leading to their presence, to decide which are significant for food safety and should therefore be addressed in the HACCP plan.
 
MONITORINGConducting a planned sequence of observations and measurements to assess whether control measures (3.7) are operating as intended and that critical limits are not exceeded.
 
NON-CONFORMITYAn observation, which leads to a minor non conformity report, relates to the missing of follow up, or control of implementation of a HACCP-requirement, in the situation that this does not effect the functioning of the HACCP system or the food safety of the product or service. An observation, which leads to a major non conformity report, relates to insufficient implementation of one or more HACCP requirements or to a situation where the food safety of the product or service is not assured.
 
OPERATIONAL PRP (OPERATIONAL PREREQUISITE PROGRAM)A PRP (3.8) identified by the hazard analysis as essential in order to control the likelihood of introducing food safety hazards (3.3) to and or the contamination or proliferation of food safety hazards in the product(s) or in the processing environment.
 
PREVENTIVE ACTIONAny measure or activity that will be used to prevent, to eliminate or to reduce the recurrence of causes for existing non conformities, defects or any other undesired situation with respect to food safety.
 
PRIMARY PRODUCTIONThose steps in the food chain up to and including harvesting, hunting, fishing, milking and all stages of animal production prior to slaughter.
 
PRODUCTS, PROCESSEDFoodstuffs resulting from the application to unprocessed products of a treatment such as heating, smoking, curing, maturing, pickling, drying, marinating, extraction, extrusion, etc. Or a combination of these processes and or products; substances necessary for their manufacture or for giving specific characteristics to the products may be added.
 
PRODUCTS, UNPROCESSEDFoodstuffs which have not undergone a treatment, including products which have been, for example, divided, parted, severed, boned, minced, skinned, ground, cut, cleaned, trimmed, husked or milled, chilled, frozen or deep-frozen.
 
PRP (PREREQUISITE PROGRAM)Basic conditions and activities necessary to maintain a hygienic environment throughout the food supply chain which is suitable for production, handling, and provision of safe end products and safe food for human consumption. PRPs depend on the segment of the food chain in which the organization operates and the type of organization (see ISO 22000 2005, Annex C). Examples of equivalent terms are Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), Good Veterinarian Practice (GVP), Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Good Hygienic Practice (GHP), Good Production Practice (GPP), Good Distribution Practice (GDP), and Good Trading Practice (GTP).
 
REMARKAn observation reported as a remark relates to an aspect which needs attention of the company, but is by no means a non conformity (NC) in relation to the HACCP-requirements
 
RISKThe probability of causing an adverse health effect caused by the occurrence and the severity of a particular hazard in food when prepared and consumed according to its intended use.
 
STEPA point, procedure, operation or stage in the food chain, including raw materials, from primary production to final consumption.
 
TARGET VALUEThe value of the product or process parameter(s) to be monitored, targeted within action-limit values (the range of acceptable variations) and certainly within critical limit values, thus securing a safe product.
 
UPDATINGImmediate and or planned activity to ensure application of the most recent information.
 
VALIDATIONObtaining evidence that the elements managed by the HACCP plan and by the Operational PRPs (3.9) are capable of being effective especially the critical control points and critical limits. NOTE This definition is based on Reference [11] and is more suitable for the field of food safety (3.1) than the definition given in ISO 9000.
 
VERIFICATIONThe application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring, to determine compliance with the specifications laid down in the HACCP plan and the effectiveness of the HACCP-based Food Safety System.
 
 
HRM
360-DEGREE FEEDBACKAn appraisal process whereby an individual is rated on his or her performance by people who know something about the individual’s work. This can include direct reports, peers, managers, customers or clients; in fact, anybody who is credible to the individual and is familiar with his or her work can be included in the feedback process. The individual usually completes a self-assessment exercise on his or her performance, which is also used in the process.
 
ABILITYAptitude or competence, the skill or proficiency needed to perform certain tasks.
 
ABILITY TESTAn assessment instrument used to measure an individual’s abilities, mental or physical skills level (i.e. problem solving, manual dexterity, etc.).
 
ABSENTEEISMReferred to as the habitual failure of employees to report for work when they are scheduled to work.
 
ABSOLUTE RATINGSA rating method where the rater assigns a specific value on a fixed scale to the behavior or performance of an individual instead of assigning ratings based on comparisons between other individuals.
 
ABSTRACT REASONINGThe process of perceiving issues and reaching conclusions through the use of symbols or generalizations rather than concrete factual information.
 
ACADEMICAn educator who is a faculty member at a college or university. Also referred to as Academician.
 
ACCESSIBILITYThe extent to which a contractor or employer facility is readily approachable and does not inhibit the mobility of individuals with disabilities, particularly such areas as the personnel office, worksite and public areas.
 
ACCESSIBLE FORMATMaterials that are designed in alternate formats such as Braille, audiotape, oral presentation or electronically for individuals with visual impairments.
 
ACCOUNTABILITYThe responsibility placed on an individual or group for their own or others actions, conduct, performance, projects, etc.
 
ACCREDITATIONA process of external quality review and certification by a recognized body that evaluates individuals, colleges, universities and educational programs to assure they are performing the functions that they claim to be performing in a competent manner.
 
ACHIEVEMENT TESTA standardized testing instrument used to measure how much an individual has learned or what skills he or she has attained as a result of education, training or past experience.
 
ACQUISITIONThe process of acquiring control of another corporation by purchase or stock exchange.
 
ACTION LEARNINGA learner-driven, continuous learning process where learning revolves around the need to find solutions to real problems.
 
ACTIVE LEARNINGThe process of learning new knowledge, skills and behaviors through taking specific actions or performing specific tasks.
 
ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING (ADL)The personal care activities which are essential to an individual everyday living, including eating, bathing, grooming, dressing, mobility and toileting.
 
ADJUNCT PROGRAMA supplemental training tool that applies programming principles to existing instructional modules, materials, texts, manuals, etc., that are designed to direct the learner to specific areas within the module.
 
ADULT LEARNERIndividuals who are beyond postsecondary education age, are employed on a full- or part-time basis and are enrolled in a formal or informal educational program.
 
ADVERSE ACTIONAny act by an employer that results in an individual or group of individuals being deprived of equal employment opportunities.
 
ADVERSE IMPACTA substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion or other employment decision that works to the disadvantage of a race, sex or ethnic group.
 
ADVERSE SELECTIONAn employer selection practices or policies that result in discriminatory or unfavorable treatment toward an individual or individuals who are members of a protected group. When you do business with people you would be better off avoiding. This is one of two main sorts of MARKET FAILURE often associated with insurance.
 
ADVISORY COMMITTEEA group or panel of internal or external members with no decision- making authority, assembled to identify and discuss specific issues and make recommendations.
 
AFFECTED CLASSGroups of employees, former employees or applicants who have experienced and or continue to experience the loss of employment opportunities or benefits due to discriminatory practices or policies of the employer.
 
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION (AA)Any program, policy or procedure that an employer implements in order to correct past discrimination and prevent current and future discrimination within the workplace.
 
AFTER-ACQUIRED EVIDENCEUsed in litigation of employment discrimination disputes, after-acquired evidence is evidence that the employer discovers after it has already discharged an employee which proves that even if the discharge in question is found to be illegal, the employer would have dismissed the employee anyway in light of discovering the misconduct.
 
ALTERNATION RANKINGA rating method used in job evaluation and performance evaluation whereby the rater is asked to select the best and worst employees from a listing of all employees and then rank them accordingly.
 
ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENTNontraditional procedures and techniques used within the framework of instructional programs to evaluate a student educational achievement.
 
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR)A voluntary procedure used to resolve disputes or conflicts between individuals, groups or labor management. This procedure utilizes the services of a neutral third party to facilitate discussion and assist the parties in reaching an agreement which is binding.
 
ALTERNATIVE WORKSITEAny location other than the employer physical worksite where employees are allowed to perform their jobs.
 
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) OF 1990The ADA is a federal anti-discrimination law which prohibits private employers, state and local governments, employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training and other terms, conditions and privileges of employment. This law (covering employers with 15 or more employees) is designed to remove barriers that prevent qualified individuals with disabilities from enjoying the same employment opportunities that are available to persons without disabilities. When an individual disability creates a barrier to employment opportunities, the ADA requires employers to consider whether a reasonable accommodation could remove the barrier.
 
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCEA statistical method used to determine whether a relationship exists among two or more variables by formulating concurrent comparisons of the variables.
 
ANALYTICAL THINKINGThe ability to analyze facts, generate a comparison and draw correct inferences or conclusions from available information.
 
ANECDOTALInformation that is based on observations or indications of individual actions instead of any organized process.
 
ANNUAL GOALAn annual target for the placement of underutilized groups of protected class members in job groups where underutilization exists.
 
ANTI-NEPOTISM POLICYAn employer policy that restricts the employment of two or more family members at the same time.
 
APPARENT AUTHORITYThe appearance that an individual has the authority or power to act as an organization agent, even though the organization has bestowed no such authority or power to that individual.
 
APPLICANTA person who seeks work at a certain employer facilities who meets certain prescribed standards, as defined by the employer.
 
APPLICANT FILESApplication forms resumes and other relevant items maintained by an employer and used during the selection process.
 
APPLICANT FLOW DATARecords of hiring, promotion and other related employment actions used for the purpose of monitoring selection and employment practices.
 
APPLICANT FLOW LOGA chronological listing that records each applicant who applies for employment or promotion. Data includes applicant name, race, national origin, gender, referral source, date of application, job title applied for and disposition.
 
APPLICANT POOLThe sum total of all individuals who have applied for a position either by submitting a resume or application for employment which the employer uses to select candidates for employment.
 
APPLICANT TRACKINGAny paper or computerized system that tracks the organization data such as resumes applications and internal job posting information.
 
APPLICATION SERVICE PROVIDER (ASP)A third-party organization that delivers software applications and related services over the Internet allowing an organization to outsource some or all of its information technology needs.
 
APPRENTICESHIPA system used to train a person in a recognized trade or craft in accordance with specific standards. The apprenticed individual obtains his or her skills by performing the related duties for a specified period of time under the tutelage of an experienced craft or tradesman.
 
APTITUDE TESTINGA standardized testing instrument used during the selection process that is intended to measure and predict an individual abilities.
 
ARBITRATIONAn alternative dispute resolution method that uses a neutral third party (i.e. arbitrator) to resolve individual, group or labor-management conflicts and issue a binding decision.
 
ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERThe physical attributes or design of a building, structure or facility that prevent individuals with physical disabilities from accessing or freely using the building, structure or facility.
 
ASSESSMENT CENTERA testing location where a candidate being considered for assignment or promotion to managerial or executive level position is rated by a team of experienced evaluators over a series of days using standardized activities, games and other simulations to predict the candidate future job performance.
 
ATTENDANCE POLICYAn employer written standards regarding the requirement for employees to be on time and present at work during regularly scheduled work periods.
 
ATTITUDE SURVEYA tool used to solicit and assess employee opinions, feelings, perceptions and expectations regarding a variety of managerial and organizational issues.
 
ATTORNEYA professional individual who is authorized to practice law and can be legally appointed by either a plaintiff or a defendant to provide legal advice or act as a legal agent on their behalf during legal proceedings.
 
ATTRITIONA term used to describe voluntary and involuntary terminations, deaths and employee retirements that result in a reduction to the employer physical workforce.
 
AUXILIARY AIDSDefined by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as including "a wide range of services and devices (necessary) for ensuring that equally effective communication" takes place with regard to persons with hearing, speech and vision disabilities. Such aids include, but are not restricted to, providing interpreters, assistive listening devices, materials in Braille, closed caption, telecommunication devices for the hearing impaired, etc.
 
AVAILABILITY ANALYSISThe process of determining the number of qualified minorities and women in the relevant available workforce who possess or have the ability to acquire the required skills or qualifications for any available position within the organization
 
BABY BOOMERSThe term used to describe those individuals born between 1945 and 1970.
 
BABY BUSTERSThe term used to describe those individuals born between 1961 and 1972.
 
BACKGROUND CHECK INVESTIGATIONThe process of verifying information supplied by applicants who are being considered for employment, including, but not limited to, contacting former employers, obtaining educational records and requesting criminal or consumer credit reports.
 
BALANCED SCORECARDA popular strategic management concept developed in the early 1990s by Drs. Robert Kaplan and David Norton. The balanced scorecard is a management and measurement system that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action. The goal of the balanced scorecard is to tie business performance to organizational strategy by measuring results in four areas financial performance, customer knowledge, internal business processes, and learning and growth.
 
BALDRIDGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARDThe Baldrige Award is given by the President of the United States to businesses—manufacturing and service, small and large—and to education and health care organizations that apply and are judged to be outstanding in seven areas leadership; strategic planning; customer and market focus; measurement, analysis and knowledge management; human resource focus; process management; and results.
 
BARRIER ANALYSISThe process of reviewing an organization’s policies and procedures to identify and eliminate impediments in recruitment, selection, transfer, or promotion of protected class individuals throughout the organization.
 
BEHAVIORAL RISK MANAGEMENTThe process of analyzing and identifying workplace behavioral issues and implementing programs, policies or services most suitable for correcting or eliminating various employee behavioral problems.
 
BEHAVIORAL-BASED INTERVIEWAn interview technique that focuses on a candidate’s past experiences, behaviors, knowledge, skills and abilities by asking the candidate to provide specific examples of when he or she has demonstrated certain behaviors or skills as a means of predicting future behavior and performance.
 
BEHAVIORALLY ANCHORED RATING SCALE (BARS)An appraisal that requires raters to list important dimensions of a particular job and collect information regarding the critical behaviors that distinguish between successful and unsuccessful performance. These critical behaviors are then categorized and appointed a numerical value used as the basis for rating performance.
 
BELL-SHAPED CURVEThe curve representing the normal distribution of a rating or test score.
 
BENCHMARKINGThe systematic process of comparing an organization’s products, services and practices against those of competitor organizations or other industry leaders to determine what it is they do that allows them to achieve high levels of performance. A technique in which a set of indicators and sub-indicators are established, against which performance or progress towards objectives can be measured. Benchmarking can also be used to compare a process or activity in one organization with similar processes or activities in another similar organization for the purposes of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of a program.
 
BENEFITSA benefit is a form of indirect compensation designed to provide employees added protection, promote goodwill and reward employment. It usually takes a form other than money. Benefits are typically extended to employees as well as their immediate family members. Who is covered, what type of benefits are offered, how costs are computed and distributed and how the value is captured and communicated are all important questions the employer must answer.
 
BEREAVEMENT LEAVEAn employer policy that provides a specific number of paid days off following the death of an employee’s spouse, parent, child, grandparent or in-law so that the employee may attend funeral proceedings, etc.
 
BEST PRACTICESDefined in a variety of ways, but typically refers to the practices of an organization that enables them to achieve superior organizational performance results.
 
BIDDINGThe practice of posting all job openings internally so that current employees may be allowed the opportunity to apply for vacant positions prior to the employer seeking qualified candidates through other external recruitment measures.
 
BLENDED WORKFORCEA workforce is comprised of permanent full-time, part-time, temporary employees and independent contractors.
 
BLIND ADA job advertisement placed in a newspaper, trade journal publication, magazine or Internet job board that contains no identifying information about the employer placing the ad.
 
BLOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS STANDARDAn OSHA standard that sets forth requirements for employers with workers exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials. In order to reduce or eliminate the hazards of occupational exposure, an employer must implement an exposure control plan for the worksite with details on employee protection measures. The plan must also describe how an employer will use a combination of engineering and work practice controls, ensure the use of personal protective clothing and equipment, provide training, medical surveillance, hepatitis B vaccinations, and signs and labels, among other provisions. Engineering controls are the primary means of eliminating or minimizing employee exposure and include the use of safer medical devices, such as needleless devices, shielded needle devices and plastic capillary tubes.
 
BLUE COLLAR WORKERSHourly paid workers employed in occupations that require physical or manual labor.
 
BONA FIDE OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATION (BFOQ)A very narrowly interpreted exception to EEO laws that allows employers to base employment decisions for a particular job on such factors as sex, religion or national origin, if they are able to demonstrate that such factors are an essential qualification for performing a particular job.
 
BONUS PLANAn incentive pay plan which awards employees compensation, in addition to their base salary, for achieving individual or group performance and productivity goals.
 
BOUNDARYLESS ORGANIZATIONDefined as an organization that removes roadblocks to maximize the flow of information throughout the organization.
 
BRANDINGThe process of identifying and differentiating an organization’s products, processes or services from another organization by giving it a name, phrase or other mark.
 
BREACH OF CONTRACTOccurring when an individual who is a party to a contract or agreement does not uphold or violates the terms of the contract.
 
BREAK-EVEN ANALYSISA measure used to determine the approximate sales volume required to cover the costs associated with producing a particular product or service.
 
BROADBANDINGA pay structure that consolidates a large number of narrower pay grades into fewer broad bands with wider salary ranges.
 
BUDDY SYSTEMA form of employee orientation whereby a newly hired employee is assigned to another employee (typically within the same department) who shows the new employee the ropes, introduces him or her to coworkers, gives personal assistance and answers questions on an as-needed basis.
 
BUMPINGThe practice of allowing more senior level employees whose positions have been slotted for elimination or downsizing the option of accepting an alternative position within the organization, for which they may be qualified to perform and which is currently occupied by another employee with less seniority.
 
BURDEN OF PROOFThe burden placed on an employer, as a result of a claim of discriminatory treatment, to provide a verifiable, legitimate and nondiscriminatory reason for any employment action taken which may have resulted in adverse treatment of a member(s) of a protected group.
 
BURNOUTPhysical or emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation or decreased morale resulting from an individual being exposed to excessive or prolonged stress and frustration caused by personal problems, work pressures, financial difficulties, etc.
 
BUSINESS LITERACYThe knowledge and understanding of the financial, accounting, marketing and operational functions of an organization.
 
BUSINESS NECESSITYA defense available when the employer has a criterion for selection that is facially neutral but which excludes members of one sex, race, national origin or religious group at a substantially higher rate than members of other groups, thus creating adverse impact. The employer must be able to prove that the challenged practices effectively carry out the business purposes they are alleged to serve and that no alternative, nondiscriminatory practices can achieve the safe and efficient operation of its business.
 
C-SUITEA term used to describe members of the executive team, i.e. CEO, CFO, CIO, COO, etc.
 
CAFETERIA PLANA benefit plan which allows employees to choose between one or more qualified tax-favored benefits and cash.
 
CALL CENTERThe area in an organization responsible for screening, forwarding and logging large volumes of customer related calls at the same time through the use of technology and other resources.
 
CAREER CENTERAn office set up within an organization to be used for the purpose of providing outplacement counseling and job placement services to displaced workers.
 
CAREER COUNSELINGGuiding individuals through the career planning and career decision-making process by helping them to make informed decisions regarding educational and occupational choices, as well as providing resources needed to further developing job search and placement skills.
 
CAREER DEVELOPMENTThe process by which individuals establish their current and future career objectives and assess their existing skills, knowledge or experience levels and implement an appropriate course of action to attain their desired career objectives.
 
CAREER LADDERThe progression of jobs in an organization’s specific occupational fields ranked from highest to lowest based on level of responsibility and pay.
 
CAREER MOBILITYThe propensity to make several career changes during an individual’s lifetime instead of committing to a long-term career within a specific occupational field.
 
CAREER PATHThe progression of jobs in an organization’s specific occupational fields ranked from lowest to highest in the hierarchal structure.
 
CAREER PLANNINGThe process of establishing career objectives and determining appropriate educational and developmental programs to further develop the skills required to achieve short- or long-term career objectives.
 
CAREER PLATEAUOccurs when an employee has reached the highest position level he or she can possibly obtain within an organization and has no future prospect of being promoted due to a lack of skills, corporate restructuring or other factors.
 
CASE STUDYA case study uses real scenarios that focus on a specific issue(s). It looks deeply at a specific issue, drawing conclusions only about that issue and only in that specific context.
 
CASUAL DRESSRefers to attire such as jeans, casual slacks, t-shirts, sport and polo shirts and other apparel used for leisure.
 
CASUAL EMPLOYMENTThe practice of hiring employees on an as-needed basis, either as a replacement for permanent full-time employees who are out on short- and long-term absences or to meet employer’s additional staffing needs during peak business periods.
 
CAUCUSA labor relations term used to define periodic suspensions of negotiations in order to provide both sides with an opportunity to consider their relevant positions.
 
CENTRALIZATIONThe process of consolidating all decision-making authority under one central group or location.
 
CHANGE AGENTA term used to define an individual or group of individuals who directly or indirectly cause or accelerate social, cultural, or behavioral change.
 
CHANGE MANAGEMENTThe systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the business environment.
 
CHILD-LABOR LAWProvisions under FLSA are designed to protect the educational opportunities of youth and prohibit their employment in jobs that are detrimental to their health and safety. FLSA restricts the hours that youth under 16 years of age can work and lists hazardous occupations too dangerous for young workers to perform.
 
CIVIL RIGHTSThe rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution and federal and state statutes enacted to protect a wide range of individual rights, such as right to vote, freedom of speech, the right to assemble, the right to equal treatment, etc.
 
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964A federal statute enacted to further guarantee the constitutional rights of individuals and prevent employment discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, national origin or age.
 
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1991A federal statute that amended the Civil Rights Act of 1964 enacted to strengthen and improve federal civil rights laws by providing for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination, clarifying provisions regarding disparate impact actions and for other purposes.
 
CLASS ACTION SUITA lawsuit filed by one party on behalf of themselves and other people in a group who share the same complaint.
 
CLIMATE SURVEYA tool used to solicit and asses employee opinions, feelings, perceptions and expectations regarding a variety of factors pertinent to maintaining the organizations climate, such as opportunities for growth, management, working relationships and environment, etc..
 
CO-COMMISSIONA commission sharing arrangement between sales professionals when engaged in team, cross-territory or cross-product line sales.
 
CO-EMPLOYMENTThe relationship between a Professional Employer Organization (PEO) or employee leasing firm and an employer, based on a contractual sharing of liability and responsibility for employees.
 
COACHINGA training method in which a more experienced or skilled individual provides an employee with advice and guidance intended to help him or her develop skills, improve performance and enhance the quality of his or her career.
 
COGNITIVE ABILITY TESTINGA testing instrument used during the selection process in order to measure the candidate’s learning and reasoning abilities.
 
COLOR DISCRIMINATIONColor discrimination occurs when a person is discriminated against based on the lightness, darkness, or other color characteristic of the person. Even though race and color clearly overlap, they are not synonymous
 
COMMON LAW EMPLOYMENT TESTRefers to the IRS’s 20-question common law test which examines the level of control exercised over a worker by an employer in order to determine whether the individual is an employee or an independent contractor.
 
COMMUNICABLE DISEASEAny condition that is transmitted directly or indirectly to a person from an infected person or animal through the agency of an intermediate animal, host or vector or through the inanimate environment. Communicable diseases include, but is not limited to, influenza; tuberculosis; conjunctivitis; infectious mononucleosis; acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS related complex (ARC) and positive HIV antibody status; hepatitis A, B, C and D; meningitis; SARS; and sexually transmitted diseases.
 
COMPA RATIOThe ratio of an actual pay rate to the midpoint for the respective pay grade used for comparing actual rates of pay with the midpoint for a particular pay grade within the salary structure.
 
COMPARATIVE RATINGA rating method that determines ratings by making comparisons between the individuals being rated.
 
COMPENSATORY TIME-OFF PLANThe practice of giving employees paid time off that can be used in the future in lieu of paying them overtime for hours worked in excess of 40 per week. While an acceptable practice in the public sector, the FLSA places very strict limitations on the use of compensatory time off for private sector employers.
 
COMPETENCIESThe knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform a specific task or function.
 
COMPETENCY-BASED PAYA compensation system that recognizes employees for the depth, breadth and types of skills they obtain and apply in their work. Also known as skill-based and knowledge-based pay.
 
COMPLIANCE OFFICERAn employee of the OFCCP engaged in the investigation of employment discrimination charges and conducting compliance reviews. The former name for this position was Equal Opportunity Specialist (EOS).
 
COMPRESSED WORKWEEKAn alternative scheduling method that allows employees to work a standard workweek over less than a five-day period in one week or a 10-day period in two weeks.
 
CONCILIATION AGREEMENTA binding written agreement between a contractor and OFCCP that details specific contractor commitments to resolve major or substantive violations of Executive Order 11246, the Rehabilitation Act or the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act.
 
CONCURRENT VALIDITYThe means of determining a test or other assessment tool’s validity by comparing test scores against actual job performance.
 
CONDITION OF EMPLOYMENTAn organization policies and work rules that employees are expected to abide by in order to remain continuously employed.
 
CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENTA contract restricting an employee from disclosing confidential or proprietary information.
 
CONFLICT OF INTERESTRefers to situations when an individual has other competing financial, professional or personal obligations or interests that interfere with his or her ability to adequately perform required duties in a fair and objective manner.
 
CONSIDERATIONA benefit or other item of value given to an individual who is asked to sign an employment contract or agreement (i.e., release agreement) that is above and beyond what the individual would have been entitled to, had he or she not been asked to sign a contract or agreement.
 
CONSTRUCT VALIDITYThe extent to which a test or other assessment instrument measures a particular trait.
 
CONSTRUCTIVE DISCHARGEOccurs when a manager supervisor or employer makes working conditions so unbearable or abusive that a reasonable person believes that resignation is the only appropriate action to take.
 
CONSULTANTAn individual who works independently to assist and advise client organizations with various organizational functions and responsibilities on a fee-for-service basis.
 
CONTENT VALIDITYThe degree to which a test or other assessment instrument used during the selection process measures the skills, knowledge and abilities or other related job qualifications.
 
CONTINGENCY PLANNINGThe process of identifying an organization’s critical information systems and business operations and developing and implementing plans to enable those systems and operations to resume following a disaster or other emergency situation.
 
CONTINGENT WORKERRefers to an individual employed in a job that does not have an explicit contract for long-term employment (i.e., independent contractor or temporary employee)
 
CONTRACTORA contractor is a firm that does business with the federal government. A prime contractor receives $50,000 or more in contracts each year and employs more than 50 people in total employment. A subcontractor performs part of the contract at the direction of the prime contractor and receives $10,000 or more in subcontracts each year.
 
CORE COMPETENCIESThe skills, knowledge and abilities which employees must possess in order to successfully perform job functions that are essential to business operations.
 
CORE WORK ACTIVITIESThe tasks or functions within an organization considered essential to the organization business operations.
 
CORE WORKERSEmployees who are considered to be vital to the organization successful business operations.
 
CORPORATE CITIZENSHIPCorporate Citizenship is the contribution a company makes to society through its core business activities, its social investment and philanthropy programs, and its engagement in public policy. The manner in which a company manages its economic, social and environmental relationships, and the way it engages with its stakeholders (such as shareholders, employees, customers, business partners, governments and communities), has an impact on the company long-term success. (World Economic Forum) The term is also used interchangeably with other similar terms such as Corporate Governance and or Corporate Social Responsibility.
 
CORPORATE CULTUREThe beliefs, values and practices adopted by an organization that directly influence employee conduct and behavior.
 
CORPORATE IMAGEThe way in which an organization is viewed by clients, employees, vendors or the general public.
 
CORPORATE VALUESThe prescribed standards, behaviors, principles or concepts that an organization regards as highly important.
 
COST OF LABORThe total payments in the form of gross salary and wages, bonuses, and other cash allowances paid to employees and salaries, allowances, fees, bonuses and commissions paid to working directors and fees paid to non-working directors for their attendance at the Board of Directors meetings.
 
COST OF LIVINGThe amount of money needed to buy the goods and services required to maintain a specific standard of living. The cost of living is closely tied to rates of inflation and deflation. In estimating such costs, food, clothing, rent, fuel, lighting, and furnishings as well as expenses for communication, education, recreation, transportation, and medical services are generally included. The Consumer Price Index (CPI), a measurement of the cost of living prepared by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, tracks changes in retail prices of an average “market basket.” Changes are compared to prices in a previously selected base year, from which figures the percentage increase or decrease in the cost of living can be calculated.
 
COST OF LIVING ADJUSTMENT (COLA)An annual adjustment in wages to offset a change in purchasing power, as measured by the Consumer Price Index. The Consumer Price Index is used rather than the Producer Price Index because the purpose is to offset inflation as experienced by the consumer, not the producer.
 
COST-PER-HIREThe direct and indirect costs that are calculated to measure the costs associated with filling a vacancy. Direct costs include, but are not limited to, advertising, employment agency fees, job fairs, employee referrals, credit and reference checking costs, examination and testing costs during the selection process, signing bonuses, relocation costs, human resource overhead costs, college recruiting costs, Internet costs and training and communication costs. Indirect costs can include, but are also not limited to, lower productivity, costs of turnover, morale impacts, safety (if there is a higher number of accidents as a result of the vacancy), disruption of regular business functions, overtime (to compensate for the vacancy) and hiring to maintain production.
 
COUNSELINGActions or interactions in one or serial form which serve to provide direction, guidance or advice with respect to recommendations, decisions or courses of action.
 
CRAFT WORKERAn individual employed in a profession or activity that uses experienced hands to make something. Apprenticeships are often required and post secondary vocational schools also offer such craft oriented training. Training time can be over a course of years and require certification examinations. Examples electrician, plumber, tool; and die maker, machinist, HVAC specialist, journeyman carpenter, cabinet maker.
 
CRISIS MANAGEMENTA broad term that refers to an organizations pre-established activities and guidelines, for preparing and responding to significant catastrophic events or incidents (i.e., fire, earthquake, severe storms, workplace violence, kidnapping, bomb threats, acts of terrorism, etc.) in a safe and effective manner. A successful crisis management plan also incorporates other organizational programs such as , emergency response , disaster recovery, risk management, communications, business continuity, etc.
 
CRISIS PLANNINGA formal written plan establishing specific measures or actions to be taken when responding to catastrophic events or tragedies (i.e., fire, earthquake, severe storms, workplace violence, kidnapping, bomb threats, acts of terrorism, etc.) in the workplace.
 
CRISIS PREVENTIONThe process of an organization implementing specific plans and procedures designed to circumvent certain disasters or emergencies.
 
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORSThe key items that must be met in order to successfully achieve a specific objective.
 
CRITICAL TASKSThe job tasks or functions essential to the proper performance of a particular job.
 
CROSS TRAININGThe process of developing a multi skilled workforce by providing employees with training and development opportunities to ensure they have the skills necessary to perform various job functions within an organization.
 
CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMSWork teams comprised of individuals who represent the various organizational functions, departments or divisions.
 
CULTURAL DIFFERENCESThe diverse behaviors, beliefs, customs, traditions, language and expressions that are characteristic to groups of people of a particular race, ethnicity or national origin.
 
CULTURAL INTEGRATIONThe process of bringing people of different racial or ethnic backgrounds into equal association.
 
CURRICULUM VITAE (C.V.)Used in the United States to describe, a longer, more detailed version of a resume. Internationally is synonymous with resume.
 
CYBERSMEARUsing Web sites, listservs, chat rooms or bulletin boards to post insulting or defamatory statements regarding former employers.
 
DAILY WORK RECORDSA daily log of job tasks being performed by individual employees over a certain period of time. Used often as a form of job analysis.
 
DAMAGESThe amounts awarded by a court to be paid by one party to another as a result of violating a contract or agreement.
 
DE MINIMIS RULEDescribed by IRS guidelines as any benefit, property or service provided to an employee that has so little value (taking into account how frequently similar benefits are provided to employees) that accounting for it would be unreasonable or administratively impracticable. Cash, no matter how little, is never excludable as a de minimis benefit, except for occasional meal money or transportation fare.
 
DE-LAYERINGAn organizational restructuring strategy meant to reduce the organization existing levels of managers or supervisors.
 
DEAUTHORIZATIONThe termination of union representation over a specific bargaining unit following a decertification election.
 
DEBARMENTAn order declaring a contractor ineligible for the award of future contracts or cancellation of current contracts. Debarment is one of the sanctions that can be imposed on a contractor found to be in violation of Executive Order 11246, Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act or Section 4212 of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act.
 
DECENTRALIZATIONThe process of assigning decision-making authority to lower levels within the organizational hierarchy. A process of transferring responsibility, authority, control, and accountability for specific or broad management functions to lower levels within an organization, system, or program.
 
DECERTIFICATIONAllows members of a particular bargaining unit to terminate their union representation through a voting process.
 
DEDUCTIVE REASONINGThe ability to extract certain rules based on a sequence of experiences or observations and apply those rules to other similar situations.
 
DEFAMATIONInjury caused to an individual character or reputation resulting from another individual(s) issuing false or malicious statements either verbally or in writing.
 
DEFERRED COMPENSATIONPayment for services under any employer-sponsored plan or arrangement that allows an employee (for tax related purposes) to defer income to the future.
 
DEFICIENCYFailure to fulfill a requirement of Executive Order 11246, Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act or Section 4212 of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act, including implementing rules, regulations and orders. "Deficiency" and "violation" are often used interchangeably.
 
DEFINED BENEFIT PLANA retirement plan that is not an individual account plan and pays participants a fixed periodic benefit or a lump sum amount, calculated using specific formulas that include such items as age, earnings and length of service.
 
DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANAn individual account plan in which the employer contributes a specific amount of money into each year that is to be distributed among the accounts of each plan participant.
 
DELEGATIONThe process of assigning tasks or projects to subordinates and clearly dictating expected outcomes and timeframe for completion.
 
DEMOGRAPHICSThe physical characteristics of a population, such as age, sex, marital status, family size, education, geographic location and occupation.
 
DEMOTIONA permanent reassignment to a position with a lower pay grade, skill requirement or level of responsibility than the employee current position.
 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (DOL)The federal agency responsible for administering and enforcing a large quantity of federal labor laws, including, but not limited to, overtime pay, child labor, wages and hours, workplace health and safety, FMLA, and various other employee rights.
 
DEPARTMENTATIONThe process of dividing an organization labor, functions, processes or units into separate groups.
 
DEPENDENT CARE ASSISTANCE PLANAn employer benefit plan that provides employees with dependent care assistance, such as paying for or providing qualified child and dependent care services necessary for them to seek or obtain gainful employment or remain gainfully employed.
 
DEPOSITIONThe process of one party, accompanied by his or her legal counsel, answering questions under oath about pertinent facts regarding a case put forth by another party legal counsel; conducted outside of a courtroom.
 
DESCRIPTIVE SCALEAny rating scale that uses adjectives or phrases to determine performance ratings.
 
DESK AUDITA review of a contractor documents and materials to determine compliance with affirmative action practices and equal employment obligations as they relate to workforce structure, personnel policies and procedures, good-faith efforts and areas of potential discrimination.
 
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMTraining or educational programs designed to stimulate an individual professional growth by increasing his or her skills, knowledge or abilities.
 
DEVELOPMENTAL COUNSELINGA form of shared counseling where managers or supervisors work together with subordinates to identify strengths and weaknesses, resolve performance-related problems and determine and create an appropriate action plan.
 
DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIESDefined as a severe, chronic disability of an individual that is attributable to mental or physical impairment or combination of mental and physical impairments; is manifested before the individual attains the age of 22; is likely to continue indefinitely; results in substantial functional limitations in three or more of the following areas of major life activity self-care, receptive and expressive living, and economic self-sufficiency; and reflects the individual need for a combination and sequence of special, interdisciplinary or generic services, individualized support or other forms of assistance that are of lifelong or extended duration and are individually planned and coordinated.
 
DIRECT COMPENSATIONAll compensation (base salary and or incentive pay) that is paid directly to an employee.
 
DIRECT COSTSThe costs directly attributed to a particular products, programs or activities.
 
DIRECT LABORThe workers who actually produce a product or provide a service.
 
DISABILITYDefined as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of an individual major life activities (i.e., walking, talking, standing, sitting, etc.)
 
DISABILITY MANAGEMENTThe process of coordinating efforts between employees, management, physicians, rehabilitation service providers and insurance carriers to reduce the impact of work-related injuries or illnesses and assisting injured employees in continuing to successfully perform their jobs.
 
DISABLED INDIVIDUALUnder the ADA guidelines, an individual with a disability is a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; has a record of such impairment; or is regarded as having such impairment. Disability under Social Security rules are defined as an individual who is unable to perform work that he or she was previously able to perform and the individual cannot adjust to other work because of his or her medical condition(s), which is expected to last for at least one year or to result in death.
 
DISABLED VETERANA person whose discharge or release from active duty was for a disability incurred or aggravated in the line of duty and who is entitled to a 30 percent or more disability payment under the regulations of the Office of Veteran Affairs.
 
DISASTER RECOVERY PLANA set of guidelines and procedures to be used by an organization for the recovery of data lost due to severe forces of nature, such as earthquakes, fires, tornadoes, floods or hurricanes.
 
DISCHARGEThe termination of an employee based on previous disciplinary proceedings or for violating a major work rule or policy.
 
DISCIPLINARY ACTIONThe means of reprimanding employees who fail to abide by the organization performance standards, policies or rules.
 
DISCIPLINARY LAYOFFA disciplinary measure in which employees are suspended without pay for a specified period of time due to violations of a company work rule or policy.
 
DISCLOSUREThe process of disclosing information to employees or the general public regarding any business practices or processes that contain the propensity to be hazardous to the environment or the health and safety of individuals.
 
DISCRETIONARY BONUSA form of variable pay where an employer provides additional cash compensation to an employee for reasons that are not pursuant to any prior contract, agreement or promise that would lead the employee to expect the payments regularly.
 
DISCRIMINATIONAny policy or action taken related to recruiting, hiring, promotion, pay or training practices that result in an unfair disadvantage to either an individual or group of individuals who are considered part of a protected class.
 
DISPARATE IMPACTUnder Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) law, a less favorable effect for one group than for another. A disparate impact results when rules applied to all employees have a different and more inhibiting effect on women and minority groups than on the majority.
 
DISPARATE TREATMENTSuch treatment results when rules or policies are applied inconsistently to one group of people over another. Discrimination may result when rules and policies are applied differently to members of protected classes.
 
DISPLACED WORKERSIndividuals who have lost their jobs due to a plant closing, relocation, downsizing or position elimination.
 
DISQUALIFYING INCOMECommonly used as an offset when coordinating income from multiple sources.
 
DISSATISFIERSFactors, such as working conditions, job functions, pay and benefits or organizational policies and practices, that contribute to employee dissatisfaction.
 
DISTANCE LEARNINGThe process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom or site to another location by using technology, such as video or audio conferencing, computers, Web-based applications or other multimedia communications.
 
DISTRACTERSRefers to incorporating incorrect items or answers into a testing instrument where the testee is asked to select from a group of items or answers (i.e., multiple choice exams).
 
DIVERSITYA broad definition of diversity ranges from personality and work style to all of the visible dimensions of diversity such as race, age, ethnicity or gender, to secondary influences such as religion, socioeconomics and education, to work diversities such as management and union, functional level and classification or proximity distance to headquarters.
 
DIVERSITY TRAININGA fundamental component of a diversity initiative that represents the opportunity for an organization to inform and educate senior management and staff about diversity. The purpose of training is not only to increase awareness and understanding of workplace diversity, but also to develop concrete skills among staff that will facilitate enhanced productivity and communications among all employees.
 
DOCUMENTATIONRefers to written notices, records, forms, memos, letters and so forth used during disciplinary proceedings.
 
DOMESTIC PARTNER BENEFITSBenefit plan provided by an employer that recognizes individuals who are of the same or opposite sex as spousal equivalents for purposes of health care coverage. Domestic partners are typically defined of as individuals that have lived together in the same residence for a specified period, are responsible for each other financial welfare, are not blood relatives, are at least 18 years of age, are mentally competent, are life partners and would get legally married should the option become available, are registered as domestic partners if there is a local domestic partner registry, and are not legally married to anyone else.
 
DOWNGRADINGThe practice of moving an employee to a job that has a lower pay grade or level of responsibility or skill.
 
DOWNSHIFTINGRefers to employees who choose to accept or remain in lower level or lower paying jobs in order to satisfy their personal and family needs.
 
DOWNSIZINGThe process of reducing the employer’s workforce through elimination of positions, management layers, processes, functions, etc.
 
DRESS CODEAn organizational policy or rule to be used by employees as a guideline as to what is considered appropriate attire for the workplace.
 
DRUG ABUSE SUBSTANCE ABUSEHabitual and excessive use of a drug.
 
DRUG TESTINGThe process of testing employees to detect the presence of illegal drugs or alcohol within their system. Drug testing can be conducted on a pre-employment, random or post-accident basis, as well as for cause or suspicion, in accordance with the employer policy and any governing state law.
 
DUAL CAREER LADDERS TRACKSAn employee career development plan allowing employees to alternate between technical, professional or managerial positions over the course of their careers while they simultaneously receive higher compensation and gain higher status levels within the organization.
 
DUE DILIGENCEA critical component of mergers and acquisitions, it is the process of conducting an investigation and evaluation in order to examine the details of a particular investment or purchase by obtaining sufficient and accurate information or documents that may influence the outcome of the transaction.
 
E-LEARNINGThe delivery of formal and informal training and educational materials, processes and programs via these of electronic media.
 
EARLY RETIREMENT PLANA benefit plan offered by an organization providing incentives geared toward encouraging employees who are approaching retirement age to voluntarily retire prior to their normal retirement age.
 
EARLY RETURN TO WORK PROGRAMModified work programs designed to get employees who have been out of work due to injury or illness to return to the workforce sooner by providing them with less strenuous alternative jobs until they are able to resume their full regular duties.
 
EEO-1 CATEGORYOne of nine broad job categories used on the EEO-1 Report. They are officials managers, professionals, technicians, sales workers, office clerical, craft workers, operatives, laborers and service workers.
 
EEOC GUIDELINESInterpretations of Title VII expressed by the EEOC that do not have the force of law, but tend to be supported by the courts. These positions are outlined in various EEOC publications ("Discrimination Because of Religion," etc.)
 
EIGHTY-PERCENT RULEMethod of determining adverse impact. Selection rates for any group that are less than 80 percent (fourfifths) of the rate for other groups is evidence of a violation of this rule.
 
ELECTROMATIONUsed to refer to a NLRB ruling declaring that, in nonunion companies, labor management cooperation (i.e., quality circles, employee involvement programs, etc.) is illegal because the committees through which such cooperation takes place are equal to a labor organization, as defined by the NLRA.
 
ELECTRONIC MONITORINGAn employee surveillance practice where items such as telephone calls or e-mail Internet usage are observed for general business, training or performance-related reasons.
 
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEDescribes the mental ability an individual possesses enabling him or her to be sensitive and understanding to the emotions of others, as well as to manage his or her own emotions and impulses.
 
EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (EAP)A work-based intervention program designed to identify and assist employees in resolving personal problems (i.e., marital, financial or emotional problems, family issues, substance alcohol abuse) that may be adversely affecting the employee performance.
 
EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENTThe means of creating a work environment that empowers employees to make decisions that affect their jobs. Also referred to as employee involvement. Further defined by the Corporate Leadership Council in the in their 2004 study, “Driving Performance and Retention Through Employee Engagement” as “the extent to which employees commit to something or someone in their organization, how hard they work, and how long they stay as a result of that commitment.”
 
EMPLOYEE HANDBOOKA written or electronic document containing summaries of the employer policies and benefits designed to familiarize employees with various matters affecting the employment relationship.
 
EMPLOYEE LEASINGA staffing alternative whereby employers form a joint-employment relationship with a leasing agency or professional employer organization (PEO) that takes on the responsibility for various HR-related functions, such as labor law compliance, compensation and benefits administration, recordkeeping, payroll and employment taxes.
 
EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988Prohibits most private employers from requiring employees or candidates for employment to submit to a lie detector test. The only time an employer may ask (but not require) an employee to take a polygraph test is in the conduct of an ongoing investigation into theft, embezzlement or a similar economic loss; or if the employee had access to property that was lost and the employer has a reasonable suspicion that the employee was involved. Employees who take a polygraph test may not be discharged or suffer any other negative consequences solely on the basis of the test, without other supporting evidence. The Act strictly mandates how polygraph tests may be administered and how the results are used.
 
EMPLOYEE REFERRAL PROGRAMA recruiting strategy where current employees are rewarded for referring qualified candidates for employment.
 
EMPLOYEE RELATIONSA broad term used to refer to the general management and planning of activities related to developing, maintaining and improving employee relationships by communicating with employees, processing grievances disputes, etc.
 
EMPLOYEE RETENTIONOrganizational policies and practices designed to meet the diverse needs of employees and create an environment that encourages employees to remain employed.
 
EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (ERISA)OF 1974ERISA sets requirements for the provision and administration of employee benefit plans. Employee benefit plans include health care benefits, profit sharing and pension plans, for example.
 
EMPLOYEE SELF-SERVICEA trend in human resource management that allows employees to handle many job-related tasks normally conducted by HR (such as benefits enrollment, updating personal information and accessing company information) through the use of a company intranet, specialized kiosks or other Webbased applications.
 
EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PLAN (ESOP)A trust established by a corporation that operates as a tax-qualified defined contribution retirement plan, but unlike traditional defined contribution plans, employer contributions are invested in the company stock.
 
EMPLOYEE STOCK PURCHASE PLANAn employer-sponsored plan that allows employees to purchase company stock below the fair market value.
 
EMPLOYEE-DRIVEN IDEA SYSTEMA type of suggestion program where employees are rewarded for being ultimately responsible for the management and implementation of any idea they submitted.
 
EMPLOYERUnder EEOC Policy Guidelines, a person or persons engaging in an industry affecting commerce who has 15 or more employees for each working day in each of the 20 or more weeks in the preceding year or any agent thereof. Includes state and local governments, any federal agency subject to the provisions of Section 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. Also includes any federal contractor or subcontractor or federally assisted construction contractor covered by Executive Order 11246, as amended.
 
EMPLOYER INFORMATION REPORT EEO-1Also known as Standard Form 100, this annual report shows the representation of female and minority employees in an employer total workforce as well as in standard job groupings (i.e., officials and managers, professionals, etc.). This report must be filed each year by any employer with 100 or more employees (50 or more for government contractors).
 
EMPLOYER OF CHOICEA term used to describe a public or private employer whose practices, policies, benefits and overall work conditions have enabled it to successfully attract and retain talent because employees choose to work there.
 
EMPLOYMENT AGENCYAn organization that provides job placement assistance, either on a temporary or permanent basis, to individuals seeking employment opportunities.
 
EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT CONTRACTA formal, legally binding agreement between an employer and employee outlining terms of employment such as duration, compensation, benefits, etc.
 
EMPLOYMENT BRANDINGA combination of marketing, communication and technology used by an organization intended to give it greater visibility amongst a large population within a short timeframe.
 
EMPLOYMENT COST INDEXConducted annually as part of the Department of Labor’s National Compensation Survey program, the Employment Cost Index measures the relative changes in wages, benefits and bonuses for a specific group of occupations.
 
EMPLOYMENT DISPLACEMENTOccurs when an employee is terminated as a result of position elimination.
 
EMPLOYMENT PRACTICEAny recruitment, hiring, selection practice, transfer or promotion policy, or any benefit provision or other function of the employer employment process that operates as an analysis or screening device.
 
EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LIABILITY AUDITAn assessment of an employer current policies and practices to determine potential areas of liability (i.e., discrimination, wrongful discharge and other violations of employee rights) typically conducted by an outside consulting or legal firm.
 
EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LIABILITY INSURANCE (EPLI)An insurance plan that provides employers with protection against claims of discrimination, wrongful termination, sexual harassment or other employment related issues made by employees, former employees or potential employees.
 
EMPLOYMENT TORTSThe grounds on which a lawsuit is based, such as wrongful discharge, negligence or invasion of privacy.
 
EMPLOYMENT VISASAn immigration-issued document that allows aliens to obtain temporary residency for the purpose of pursuing employment opportunities within the United States.
 
EMPLOYMENT-AT-WILLA legal doctrine that states that an employment relationship may be terminated by the employer or employee at any time and for any or no reason.
 
EMPOWERMENTEnabling an individual to have responsibility, control and decision-making authority over the work he or she performs.
 
ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL)English language training provided to individuals who do not speak English as their primary language.
 
ENGLISH-ONLY RULESAn employer policy or work rule that requires employees to only speak in the English language at all times while on the job or in the workplace.
 
ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNINGA process that systematically surveys and interprets relevant data to identify external opportunities and threats.
 
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO)A policy statement that equal consideration for a job is applicable to all individuals and that the employer does not discriminate based on race, color, religion, age, marital status, national origin, disability or sex. Equal opportunity clause The seven subparagraphs in Section 202 of Executive Order 11246, as amended. These paragraphs are required to be part of all contracts covered by the executive order.
 
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION (EEOC)The federal agency responsible for publishing guidelines, enforcing EEO laws and investigating complaints of job discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age or disability.
 
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY SURVEYThis report is sent to a substantial portion of all no construction contractors each year. It requires them to provide to the OFCCP information regarding applicants, hires, promotions, terminations, compensation and tenure by race and gender. No construction contracts can expect to receive and complete this report every other year.
 
EQUAL PAY ACT OF 1963A federal law prohibiting employers from discriminating between male employees and female employees in terms of pay when they are performing jobs that are essentially the same or of comparable worth.
 
EQUAL TREATMENTA legal doctrine used in discharge cases to determine whether an employer policies and practices are applied in a fair, consistent and nondiscriminatory manner.
 
EQUIVALENT POSITIONAccording to section 825.215 of the FMLA regulations, an equivalent position is one that is virtually identical to the employee former position in terms of pay, benefits and working conditions, including privileges, perquisites and status. It must involve the same or substantially similar duties and responsibilities, which must entail substantially equivalent skill, responsibility and authority.
 
ERGONOMICSThe design of the equipment, furniture, machinery or tools used in the workplace that promotes safety, efficiency and productivity and reduces discomfort and fatigue.
 
ERROR OF CENTRAL TENDENCYA rating error occurring when the rater displays a propensity to assign only average ratings to all individuals being rated.
 
ERROR OF CONTRASTAn error occurring when raters assign ratings based on comparisons between individuals being rated instead of using previously established organizational standards.
 
ERROR OF HALOA rating error occurring when the rater assigns a rating based on individual positive or negative characteristics.
 
ERROR OF INCONSISTENCYOccurs when no established organizational standards for rating an individual exist, and raters use different strategies for assigning ratings.
 
ERROR OF PROJECTIONAn error in rating, which occurs when raters are inclined to allow their own personal characteristics or values to affect the ratings they assign.
 
ERROR OF RECENCYOccurs when raters assign a rating based on the individual’s short-term versus long-term job performance.
 
ERROR OF STANDARDSOccurs when a rating is assigned based on impracticable standards established by the rater.
 
ERRORS AND OMISSIONS INSURANCEAn insurance policy providing businesses with coverage and protection against potential lawsuits from clients or customers.
 
ESSAY APPRAISALAn appraisal strategy requiring the rater to provide a narrative description of an individual performance based on the rater performance observations.
 
ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONSThe primary job functions or tasks that an individual must be able to perform with or without a reasonable accommodation.
 
ETHICAL LEADERSHIPBroadly defined, as the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and promotion of such conduct among followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision-making processes (M.E Brown and L.K. Trevino, Measures for Leadership Development Ethical Leadership Scale)
 
ETHICSA philosophy principle concerned with opinions about appropriate and inappropriate moral conduct or behavior by an individual or social group.
 
ETHNIC CATEGORIESA grouping of individuals who are of the following decent American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; and White.
 
EXECUTIVEA term used to define the highest-ranking individual or group of individuals reporting to a board of directors who have managerial or administrative authority for the business operations of the entire organization, business unit, or function.
 
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATIONCompensation packages specifically designed for executive-level employees that include items such as base salary, bonuses, perquisites and other personal benefits, stock options and other related compensation and benefit provisions.
 
EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENTTraining and educational programs designed to increase performance and further the development of leadership skills for executive and senior-level managerial employees.
 
EXECUTIVE ORDERAn official presidential directive that has the same force as a law.
 
EXECUTIVE OUTPLACEMENTA program designed to provide displaced senior-level managerial and professional employees with career management and transition services that go above and beyond what is typically offered through a customary outplacement program.
 
EXECUTIVE RETREATA team building and development approach designed for executive-level managers; conducted off-site and typically lasts from a few days to a week.
 
EXECUTIVE SEARCH FIRMAn agency or organization used by employers to assist them with the selection and placement of candidates for senior-level managerial or professional positions.
 
EXEMPT EMPLOYEESEmployees who meet one of the FLSA exemption tests and who are paid on a fixed salary basis and not entitled to overtime.
 
EXIT INTERVIEWAn interview conducted at the time of an employee resignation, used to identify the underlying factors behind an employee decision to leave. An interview conducted with clients as they leave the family planning clinic to assess how they felt about the services they received. The interview can be an informal conversation or a more formal questionnaire that focuses on a particular aspect of service delivery.
 
EXPATRIATEAn employee who is transferred to work abroad on a long-term job assignment.
 
EXPECTANCY THEORYA motivational theory concluding that individuals feel a sense of pleasure and gratification when they have completed a challenging task and therefore are generally more motivated.
 
EXPEDITED ARBITRATIONA dispute resolution method used by the American Arbitration Association to resolve cases in accordance with a prescribed set of guidelines.
 
EXTERNAL BENCHMARKINGThe process of comparing an organization current policies and practices to that of a competitor organization(s) to determine current and future trends in areas of employment and business practice (i.e., compensation, benefits, HR practices).
 
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATOROrganizationally controlled incentives, such as pay, benefits, incentives, achievement awards, etc., used to reinforce motivation and increase performance.
 
EXTRINSIC REWARDWork-related rewards that have a measurable monetary value, unlike intrinsic rewards, such as praise or satisfaction in a job well done.
 
FACE VALIDITYMaking a decision regarding the appropriateness of a test or other assessment instrument based on appearance rather than objective criteria.
 
FACT FINDINGThe process of utilizing an impartial third party, not employed by the organization, to examine all pertinent facts surrounding a complaint.
 
FACT-FINDING CONFERENCEAn informal meeting directed by the EEOC to settle discrimination complaints between an employer and the plaintiff.
 
FACTOR COMPARISONA job comparison process involving ranking each individual job by certain selected compensable factors to establish appropriate values to be used in determining pay rates.
 
FACTOR WEIGHTUsed in the job evaluation process, it is the process of assigning a weight to compensable factors to determine their relative worth.
 
FAIR REPRESENTATIONThis term means that a trade union, so long as it continues to be entitled to represent employees in a bargaining unit, may not act in a manner that is arbitrary, discriminatory or in bad faith in the representation of any employees in the unit.
 
FAMILY STATUS CHANGEUsed to define changes to an individuals existing family standing. Typically found in health care benefit plans covered by section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code. IRC 125, does not allow individuals enrolled in a covered benefit plan to make election changes to their existing benefits coverage outside of the plans annual open enrollment period, unless a qualifying change in family or employment status, defined by the IRS as a "Qualified Family Status Change" has occurred (i.e. marriage, divorce, legal separation, death, birth adoption, changes in employment status, cessation of dependent status, or a significant change in cost or reduction of benefits.)
 
FAMILY-FRIENDLYA policy or practice designed to help families spend more time together and or enjoy a better quality of life.
 
FAST-TRACKERSA term used to describe employees who have exhibited strong potential for promotion and are being primed for higher level professional or technical positions within the organization.
 
FAT ORGANIZATIONAn organization with a structure consisting of several layers of management.
 
FEASIBILITY STUDYA study designed to discover if a business, product, project or process justify the investment of time, money and other resources.
 
FEATHERBEDDINGAn unfair labor practice occurring when a union requires an employer to pay an employee for services he or she did not perform.
 
FETAL PROTECTION POLICYAn employer policy meant to protect a pregnant woman’s unborn fetus by excluding pregnant women from engaging in jobs requiring exposure to or the use of hazardous chemicals or materials.
 
FIELD INTERVIEWAn employment interview conducted away from the employer actual worksite.
 
FISCAL ENVIRONMENTALISMRefers to company practices which are which are self sustaining and environmentally friendly.
 
FITNESS FOR DUTYA document provided by a medical practitioner following a post-offer medical examination containing information used by the employer to determine a candidate ability to perform the functions of a job. Also used to refer to documents or notes from medical providers releasing individuals under their care to resume full or modified duties following a leave of absence due to illness or injury.
 
FIXED YEARA term used to describe an invariable year such as a calendar or fiscal year.
 
FLAT ORGANIZATIONAn organization characterized by having only a few layers of management from top to bottom
 
FLEXIBLE BENEFIT PLANA benefit program regulated under IRC 125 that offers employees a choice between permissible taxable benefits (including cash) and nontaxable benefits such as life and health insurance, vacations, retirement plans and child dependent care. Although a common core of benefits may be required, the employee may determine how his or her remaining benefits dollars are allocated for each type of benefit from the total amount offered by the employer.
 
FLEXIBLE SCHEDULINGAn alternative work arrangement providing employees with greater flexibility in meeting their own personal needs by allowing them to work nontraditional schedules (i.e., compressed workweek, summer hours or flextime).
 
FLEXIBLE STAFFINGThe practice of utilizing temporary employees, independent contractors or part-time employees to fill vacancies instead of hiring a traditional full-time permanent employee workforce.
 
FLEXTIMEVariable work hours requiring employees to work a standard number of core hours within a specified period of time, allowing employees greater flexibility in their starting and ending times.
 
FORCED DISTRIBUTIONAn appraisal rating method intended to prevent rater errors by requiring the rater to force ratings into a bell shaped curve.
 
FORCED RANKINGA performance appraisal system where raters are asked to identify a certain percentage of employees who are top performers ready for advancement and those employees falling into the bottom percentage who must improve or leave the organization.
 
FORCED-CHOICEIn test construction, used to define multiple-choice tests or questionnaires requiring the testee to choose an answer from a collection of possible answers. Also refers to a performance appraisal strategy where the appraisal is divided into several sections, and the rater is then provided with a few performance descriptors for each section and asked to select the most and least characteristic statement.
 
FORECASTINGA business analysis conducted in order to assess what future trends are likely to happen, especially in connection with a particular situation, function, practice or process that is likely to affect the organization business operations.
 
FRACTIONAL BARGAININGBargaining that takes place at a department or unit level which may lead to an unwritten consensus to ignore certain provisions of a collective bargaining agreement.
 
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) OF 1966A federal law providing guidelines for access and disclosure of government documents and materials to the general public.
 
FRINGE BENEFITEmployment benefits granted to employees in addition to their current base salary or wages (i.e., cash, merchandise, services, health insurance, pension plans, holidays, paid vacations, etc.).
 
FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT (FTE)A value assigned to signify the number of full-time employees that could have been employed if the reported number of hours worked by part-time employees had been worked by full-time employees instead.
 
FULLY INSURED PLANA benefit plan where the employer contracts with another organization to assume financial responsibility for the enrollees’ medical claims and for all incurred administrative costs.
 
FUNCTIONAL TEAMA group of employees who are responsible for a particular function within the organization.
 
GAG CLAUSERefers to the employment contract restrictions used as a means of protecting the organization trade secrets or proprietary information.
 
GAINSHARING PLANA group incentive plan used to enhance productivity by sharing with a group a percentage of the gains the organization realizes from specific group efforts.
 
GARNISHMENTA court order requiring an employer to withhold a certain percentage from an employee’s pay in order to settle a debt with a creditor.
 
GENERALISTAn individual who possesses the capabilities to perform more than one diversified function, rather then specializing in or having responsibility for one specific function.
 
GENERATION IThe term used to describe children born after 1994 who are growing up in the Internet age.
 
GENERATION XThe term used to describe individuals born between 1965 and 1980.
 
GENERATION YThe term used to describe individuals born between 1985 and the present.
 
GENETIC-BASED DISCRIMINATIONThe practice of requesting or requiring genetic testing information during the hiring process or using genetic testing information to base any other employment decisions or actions.
 
GEOGRAPHICAL DIFFERENTIALThe variance in pay established for same or comparable jobs based on variations in labor and costs of living among other geographic regions.
 
GLASS CEILINGUsed to describe the invisible barrier keeping women from advancing into executive-level positions.
 
GLASS CEILING ACT OF 1991An act meant to raise public awareness regarding the underutilization of females and minorities in certain positions within the U.S. workforce and eliminate barriers preventing advancement.
 
GLOBAL COMPENSATIONPay practices relating to employees who are working on assignments in international locations. A service premium and additional incentives are often included in the compensation package to offset differences in taxes and cost of living.
 
GLOBAL RELOCATIONThe process of transferring an individual’s residence from the United States to a foreign country for the purpose of completing an international job assignment.
 
GLOBALIZATIONThe term used to describe increasingly mobile organizations that are performing their operations in foreign countries.
 
GOALA statement outlining the long-term results, accomplishments or objectives an organization seeks to attain.
 
GOAL ACHIEVEMENTHow well a contractor has progressed toward meeting employment or promotion targets set to correct underutilization of protected class members.
 
GOAL SETTINGThe process of setting and assigning a set of specific and attainable goals to be met by an individual, group or organization.
 
GOLD-COLLAR EMPLOYEEThe term used to describe individuals such as scientists, engineers and other highly skilled employees who are in high demand and short supply.
 
GOOD -FAITH BARGAININGThe principles applied to conducting negotiations where two parties meet and confer at reasonable times with open minds and the intention of reaching an agreement.
 
GOOD FAITH EFFORTThe effort and action an organization puts forth to correct goals and specific problem areas.
 
GRADED VESTINGA schedule used for vesting purposes, in which the vesting occurs over a period of five to 15 years.
 
GRAPEVINEAn informal communication channel used to transmit information or rumors from one person to another.
 
GREEN CARDA card issued in accordance with immigration laws to an alien granting him or her the right to become a lawful permanent resident of the United States, including the right to work legally.
 
GREENFIELD OPERATIONA new operation that is built from “the ground up”.
 
GRIEVANCEA formal complaint or allegation by an employee or group of employees made to unfair treatment or violation of a union contract.
 
GRIEVANCE PROCEDURESThe process and guidelines to be followed by employees, management or the union when resolving differences or conflicts.
 
GROSS PRODUCT MARGINThe difference between the price a certain product is sold at and the cost of producing the product.
 
GROUP DYNAMICSThe social manner in which people interact with each other within a group.
 
GROUP INTERVIEWAn interviewing method where a prospective employee is interviewed by a small group of his or her peers.
 
GROUP OUTPLACEMENTUsed as a cost-cutting measure, it incorporates the same principles as individual outplacement benefits (i.e., providing job counseling, training and other services to displaced employees) with the exception that counseling is performed on a group vs. individual basis.
 
HALO HORN EFFECTA form of interviewer bias, occurring when the interviewer rates or judges an individual based on the individual’s positive or strongest traits, allowing their overall perception of the person to overshadow any negative traits. Referred to as the “halo effect” when it works in the candidate’s favor or the “horn effect” when it works against the candidate.
 
HANDICAPPED INDIVIDUALBased on the definition provided by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, an individual is "handicapped" if he or she has a mental or physical impairment which substantially limits one or more of such person major life activities; has a record of such; is regarded as having such impairment. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 amended this definition to exclude individuals who are currently engaged in the use of illegal drugs. Individuals who are rehabilitated drug users or engaged in a supervised drug rehabilitation program and are no longer using drugs are also covered by the definition. The term “individual with handicaps” does not include any individual whose current use of alcohol prevents such an individual from performing the duties of the job in question or whose employment, by reason of such current alcohol abuse, would constitute a direct threat to property or the safety of others.
 
HARASSMENTConduct or actions, based on race, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, military membership or veteran status, severe or pervasive enough to create a hostile, abusive or intimidating work environment for a reasonable person. State laws may further define harassment to include additional protections, such as sexual orientation, marital status, transsexualism or cross-dressing, political affiliation, criminal record, prior psychiatric treatment, occupation, citizenship status, personal appearance, "matriculation," tobacco use outside work, Appalachian origin, receipt of public assistance or dishonorable discharge from the military.
 
HAWTHORNE EFFECTA term produced as a result of an experiment conducted by Elton Mayo whereby he concluded that expressing concern for employees and treating them in a manner that fulfills their basic human needs and wants will ultimately result in better performance.
 
HAZARD PAYA special payment made in addition to an individual salary for accepting assignments at locations where there is threat of physical danger or for performing positions that are hazardous to the individual health and well-being.
 
HEAD COUNTRefers to average number of people employed directly by the company on a full-time and part-time basis.
 
HEALTH CARE FLEXIBLE SPENDING ACCOUNT (FSA)A benefit plan designed to allow employees to set aside pre-tax dollars to pay for eligible medically related expenses, such as medical, vision or dental exams, copays and deductibles, as well as other out-of-pocket expenses.
 
HEALTH INSURANCE PORTABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITYThe Act HIPAA of 1996, was enacted to make health insurance more "portable" from one employer to another. The law mandates procedures for both new hires and for existing employees who are leaving the company. Employees who are new to a company can use evidence of previous health care coverage that is provided by their former employer to reduce or eliminate the new employer preexisting condition requirements. Employees who are leaving a company must be provided a certificate of prior creditable health care coverage to use for this purpose. The law includes other provisions regarding restrictions on preexisting conditions, special enrollment rights and privacy rights and protections.
 
HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS (HSA)A tax-free account that can be used by employees to pay for qualified medical expenses. Contributions do not have to be spent the year they are deposited. Money in the account earns interest and accumulates tax free, so the funds can be used now and in the future. If an employee leaves the job, he or she can take the account with him or her and continue to use it to pay for qualified healthcare expenses. To be eligible for a Health Savings Account, an individual must be covered by a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP), must not be covered by other health insurance (does not apply to specific injury insurance and accident, disability, dental care, vision care, long-term care), is not eligible for Medicare and can’t be claimed as a dependent on someone else tax return.
 
HIDDEN DISABILITIESDisabilities which are not of a visible nature, such as learning disorders, alcohol abuse, depression, etc.
 
HIERARCHY OF NEEDSA psychology theory ascribed to Abraham H. Maslow, in which he proposed that people will constantly seek to have their basic needs (sleep, food, water, shelter, etc.) fulfilled and that such needs ultimately determine behavior.
 
HIGHLY COMPENSATED EMPLOYEEFor the purposes of retirement plans, a highly compensated employee is defined by the IRS as an employee who owns 5% or more of a company or receives compensation in excess of a predetermined amount. To qualify for tax advantages, retirement plans cannot be overly favorable to highly compensated employees. The definition of HCE is crucial in determining whether plan benefits are allocated to HCEs in a discriminatory manner compared to no highly compensated employees.
 
HOME-BASED WORKERAn employee who works from a home office rather than at a physical workspace at the employer location.
 
HONESTY INTEGRITY TESTINGTests used to assess an individual propensity for dishonest conduct or behavior (i.e., stealing or lying).
 
HORIZONTAL ORGANIZATIONA flat organizational structure that consists of fewer hierarchal levels. Such organizational structures often rely on the use of cross-functional teams.
 
HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT HARASSMENTSexual or other discriminatory conduct that is so severe and pervasive that it interferes with an individual ability to perform the job, creates an intimidating, offensive, threatening or humiliating work environment or causes a situation where a person psychological well-being is adversely affected.
 
HOSTILE TAKEOVERA leveraged purchase of a company that goes against the wishes of the target company management and board of directors.
 
HOT-DESKSA method of saving office space in which workers do not have their own desk but share the same desk at different times during the day or week.
 
HOTELINGThe practice of not assigning offices on a permanent basis to individuals who telecommute. Instead, offices are assigned by calling in and reserving an office or workstation in advance.
 
HOURLY EMPLOYEEAn employee who is paid by the hour and who must be paid overtime under the FLSA or a state wage hour statute.
 
HUDDLE GROUPA training method whereby participants are divided into small groups, given a specific problem to handle within a short period of time (typically less than 10 minutes) and then report their findings back to the larger collective group.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE AUDITINGThe process of assessing HR programs and services to determine effectiveness or efficiency.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENTA set of planned activities intended to provide the organization with the skills it requires to meet current and future business demands.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM (HRIS)A computer database used to gather, store, maintain and retrieve relevant employee and HR-related information.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTThe formal structure within an organization responsible for all the decisions, strategies, factors, principles, operations, practices, functions, activities and methods related to the management of people.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMA software application combining various human resource functions, such as benefits, payroll, recruiting, training, etc., into one package.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE METRICSMeasurements used to determine the value and effectiveness of HR strategies. Typically includes such items as cost per hire, turnover rates costs, training and human capital ROI, labor productivity rates and costs, benefit costs per employee, etc.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNINGThe process of anticipating future staffing needs and ensuring that a sufficient pool of talent possessing the skills and experience needed will be available to meet those needs.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE SPECIALISTA term used to define an individual who has expertise and responsibility for a specific area or function in the field of Human Resources (i.e. compensation, benefits, employee relations, etc.)
 
HUMAN RESOURCESThe function dealing with the management of people employed within the organization.
 
HYBRID ORGANIZATIONAn organization whose structure is comprised of both vertical and horizontal models.
 
HYGIENE THEORYStudies conducted by Frederick Herzberg used to better understand employee attitudes and motivation and what factors cause job satisfaction and dissatisfaction
 
ICEBREAKERA beginning exercise, game or simulation used as a means to reduce tension and create a more relaxed atmosphere during training programs.
 
IDENTITY THEFTRegulated by federal and state statutes, identity theft occurs when a person fraudulently obtains and uses another person personal information, such as name, Social Security number, credit card number, etc., without that person authorization, consent or knowledge.
 
ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT ALIENAn individual who is not a U.S. citizen and who has entered the United States without proper documentation and without complying with legally required U.S. immigration and naturalization procedures.
 
IMAGE CONSULTINGThe practice of counseling and advising individuals regarding items such as personal appearance, dress, manner of speaking or style.
 
IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT (IRCA) OF 1986The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) prohibits the employment of individuals who are not legally authorized to work in the United States or in an employment classification that they are not authorized to fill. The IRCA requires employers to certify (using the I-9 form) within three days of employment the identity and eligibility to work of all employees hired. IRCA also prohibits discrimination in employment related matters on the basis of national origin or citizenship.
 
IMPACT RATIOSelection rate, for an employment opportunity, for a group of people in a protected class, divided by the selection rate for the group with the highest selection rate. For an adverse employment situation, the impact ratio is the rate of the group with the lowest rate divided by the rate of the group in question. Impact ratios are compared to the 80 percent rule to determine adverse impact.
 
IMPAIRMENTA physical or mental condition resulting from injury or illness, which diminishes an individual faculties such as ability to hear, see, walk, talk, etc.
 
IMPATRIATEForeign nationals who are hired by U.S. employers under the H1-B visa program to fill highly skilled vacancies due to a labor shortage of skilled U.S. applicants.
 
IN-COMPANY IN-HOUSE COUNSELINGAn EAP program which is conducted by a trained professional counselor hired as an employee by the employer to handle all aspects of the company EAP.
 
INCENTIVE PAYAdditional compensation used to motivate and reward employees for exceeding performance or productivity goals.
 
INCENTIVE PAY PLANA plan providing additional compensation intended to serve as an incentive for excellent performance, exceeding productivity goals or standards, as well as other contributions in accordance with prescribed goals or standards.
 
INCENTIVE STOCK OPTIONAn employee stock option plan that allows options to be granted or exercised on a tax-deferred basis. All gains on options are taxed only when the holder sells the stock.
 
INCIDENCE RATEIndicates the number of workplace injuries illnesses and the number of lost work days per 100 employees.
 
INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORA self-employed individual who performs a service for an employer under an express or implied agreement and who is not subject to the employer control, or right to control, regarding the method and means in which the service is performed.
 
INDIRECT COMPENSATIONCompensation that is not paid directly to an employee and is calculated in addition to base salary and incentive pay (i.e., health dental vision insurance, vacation, retirement benefits, educational benefits, relocation expenses, etc.).
 
INDIRECT LABORUsed to define labor that is necessary to support the manufacturing of a product, but is not directly involved with the actual process of manufacturing the product.
 
INDUCTION PROGRAMPrograms designed to introduce and acclimate newly hired employees into the organization.
 
INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACYThe involvement and empowerment of employees in decision-making within the organization by such methods as joint labor-management committees, work teams, quality circles, employee task forces, etc.
 
INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGYApplied psychology concerned with the study of human behavior in the workplace and how to efficiently manage an industrial labor force and problems encountered by employees.
 
INDUSTRIAL REHABILITATIONPrograms designed to get employees who have been injured on the job back into the workforce and off workers compensation.
 
INFORMED CONSENTAn individual agreement to allow something to transpire subsequent to the individual having been informed of associated risks involved and alternatives.
 
INJUNCTIONA court-issued order requiring a party to either do or refrain from doing a certain act.
 
INPATRIATEA foreign national transferred to the United States on a long-term assignment.
 
INPLACEMENT COUNSELINGA form of employee counseling geared toward acclimating recently promoted or transferred employees into their new positions or providing current employees guidance on the steps they need to take to be considered for promotion or transfer to alternative positions.
 
INSOURCINGRefers to the process of internally administering employee benefit plans or other programs, as opposed to utilizing the services of a third-party provider.
 
INSTRUCTOR-TO-TRAINEE RATIOThe maximum number of trainees assigned per trainer.
 
INSUBORDINATIONThe willful or repeated disobedience to an order or directive from a higher level manager or superior to a subordinate.
 
INTANGIBLE REWARDSNonmonetary reinforcing, such as praise, given to an employee in recognition of a job well done or a particular achievement.
 
INTEGRITY TESTINGA pre-employment psychological assessment tool used to gauge an applicant honesty.
 
INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ)The measure of an individual cognitive abilities, as measured by an intelligence test.
 
INTERMITTENT REDUCED SCHEDULE LEAVEUnder FMLA, intermittent and reduced schedule leave is used to describe leave that is not taken on a consecutive basis but rather taken in increments of days or hours.
 
INTERNAL EQUITYA term used to refer to employees perceived fairness of a company pay structure as it relates to their responsibilities, compensation, benefits, and working conditions compared with those of other employees in similar or like positions.
 
INTERNAL RECRUITMENTThe practice of assessing the employer current workforce to determine whether or not current employees possess the required skills or qualifications to fill specific vacancies either through promotion or transfer.
 
INTERNAL TEMPORARY POOL EMPLOYEEA pool of former employees who are called upon and hired to fill temporary staffing needs on an as-needed basis.
 
INTERNSHIPA partnership between an organization and an educational institution, whereby students are hired by an employer for a specified period of time into a professional or technical position that correlates with their area of study in order to provide them with hands-on experience and prepare them for the workforce.
 
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONSRefers to the process of communicating with another person or group to express feelings, thoughts or information by means of physical gestures or verbal exchanges.
 
INTERPRETIVE GUIDELINES ON SEXUAL HARASSMENTEEOC issued guidelines defining sexual harassment and the employer responsibility for maintaining a workplace environment which is free from sexual harassment or intimidation.
 
INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATIONDiscrimination not just because of one protected trait (e.g., race), but also because of the intersection of two or more protected bases (e.g., race and sex), i.e., Title VII prohibits discrimination against African American women even if the employer does not discriminate against White women or African American men.
 
INTERVIEWUsed during the selection process, an interview is a face-to-face meeting with an individual or group, which involves asking questions to elicit information from the applicant to determine whether or not an applicant is suitable for a position of employment.
 
INTERVIEW TO OFFER RATIOThe ratio of the numbers of individuals interviewed to actual offers extended.
 
INTRINSIC REWARDA reward given to an employee for achievement of a particular goal, objective or project.
 
INVITATION TO SELF-IDENTIFYAn invitation by an employer extended to all employees who believe they are covered by Section 402 or 503 to identify themselves as having a disability, being a disabled veteran, a Vietnam-era veteran or other eligible veteran for purposes of making reasonable accommodation and taking affirmative action. Applicants may no longer be asked to self-identify prior to an offer of employment being extended to them by the employer.
 
JOB ACCOMMODATION NETWORK (JAN)A service of the Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) of the U.S. Department of Labor. JAN mission is to facilitate the employment and retention of workers with disabilities by providing employers, employment providers, people with disabilities, their family members and other interested parties with information on job accommodations, self-employment and small business opportunities and related subjects.
 
JOB AIDSA document consisting of information or instructions used to guide the user on how to perform a task correctly.
 
JOB ANALYSISThe systematic process of gathering and examining and interpreting data regarding the specific tasks comprising a job.
 
JOB BANKRefers to pools of retired employees who are used by employers to fill part-time or temporary position needs.
 
JOB CLASSIFICATIONA method of evaluation used for job comparisons, which groups jobs into a prearranged number of grades, each having a class description and a specified pay range.
 
JOB CODESIdentification numbers assigned to specific jobs or job tasks.
 
JOB DISPLACEMENTOccurs when an employee position is eliminated.
 
JOB ENLARGINGA method used to keep workers motivated, the process involves adding new tasks which are of the same level of skill and responsibility to a job.
 
JOB ENRICHMENTThe practice of adding tasks to a job as a means of increasing the amount of employee control or responsibility.
 
JOB EVALUATIONUsed for compensation planning purposes, it is the process of comparing a job with other jobs in an organization to determine an appropriate pay rate for the job.
 
JOB GRADEThe group into which jobs of the same or similar worth are placed for determining appropriate rates of pay.
 
JOB GROUPA division within the contractor workforce for the purposes of analyzing the workforce for underutilization. Job grouping is done to group job titles together based on similarity of job content, pay rates and opportunities for advancement.
 
JOB OFFER LETTERA formal written document that is provided by an employer to a candidate selected for employment which outlines information regarding the employment terms, such as the date employment is to commence, the position the individual is being hired to perform, the agreed upon salary, benefits to be provided, etc. The employer usually requires the candidate to sign and return the letter as a formal acceptance of employment.
 
JOB POSTINGThe method of advertising for vacancies internally by posting a notice of the opening on a bulletin board, etc.
 
JOB PRICINGThe process of determining pay rates for jobs within the organization by analyzing industry or regional salary survey data in order to establish appropriate job pay rates.
 
JOB RANKINGThe process of ranking all jobs within the organization in order of importance or worth.
 
JOB REDESIGNThe process of restructuring a job by adding, changing or eliminating certain tasks or functions in order to make the job more satisfying or challenging.
 
JOB REFERENCE IMMUNITY STATUTESLaws enacted in several states meant to provide employers with protection from liability when disclosing information regarding current or former employees. Typically for an employer to be immune from liability the reference provided must be factual and truthful, based on documented information and not be given with malicious intent.
 
JOB ROTATIONThe practice of transferring employees for temporary periods of time between varying jobs within an organization. Often used as a training and development method.
 
JOB SAMPLINGDuring the selection process, the term refers to the practice of observing and measuring how an applicant actually performs certain selected job tasks.
 
JOB SATISFACTIONUsed to define how an employee feels regarding their job, work environment, pay, benefits, etc.
 
JOB SCRAPINGRefers to the process of migrating job listings to a job board from job boards where they were initially posted to enhance job site listings or hits.
 
JOB SHADOWINGA temporary, unpaid work experience opportunity where students learn about a particular job (typically in a field of interest) by walking through the work day as a shadow to an employee.
 
JOB SHARINGThe practice of two different employees performing the tasks of one full-time position.
 
JOB TITLEA specific name given to a particular job which is used to distinguish that job from other jobs within the organization.
 
JOB-RELATEDNESSThe requirement that an employer be able to demonstrate that a particular action, policy or job requirement is related to the actual job.
 
JOHARI WINDOWA leadership disclosure and feedback model which can be used in performance measurement and features the four quadrants (windows) of “knowing”. Quadrant I – represents the area of free activity or public area, refers to behavior and motivation known to self and known to others. Quadrant II – represents the blind area, where others can see things in ourselves of which we are unaware. Quadrant III – represents the avoided or hidden areas, represents things we know but do not reveal to others, (e.g., a hidden agenda, or matters about which we have sensitive feelings). Quadrant IV - represents the areas of unknown activity, in which neither the individual nor others are aware of certain behaviors or motives.
 
JOINT EMPLOYMENTThe relationship between a Professional employer organization or employee leasing firm and an employer, based on a contractual sharing of liability and responsibility for employees.
 
JOINT LABOR MANAGEMENTA panel comprised of management and union committee representatives whose purpose is to address problems, resolve conflicts and build on relationships.
 
JUST CAUSEA legal term used as the guiding principle utilized by employers whenever engaging in some form of corrective action or discipline for employees. Just cause is determined by examining the reasonableness of the discipline according to a set of guiding principles (i.e. was the employee adequately forewarned that the particular behavior would result in discipline or termination; management conducted a fair and objective investigation of the facts prior to administering any discipline; rules, orders, and disciplinary action must be applied in a consistent and non-discriminatory manner; discipline must be reasonably related to the seriousness of the offense and the employee past work record, etc.)
 
KEY EMPLOYEEUnder FMLA statutes, a key employee is defined as a salaried employee who is among the highest-paid 10% of all workers employed by the employer within a 75-mile radius. Under ERISA, a key employee is defined as a plan participant who is a highly compensated officer or company owner.
 
KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPI)Key Performance Indicators are quantifiable, specific measures of an organization’s performance in a certain area(s) of its business. . The purpose of KPI’s is to provide the company with quantifiable measurements of things it has determined are important to the organizational or business long-term goals and critical success factors . Once uncovered and properly analyzed, KPI’s can be used to understand and improve organizational performance and overall success. Also referred to as Key success indicators.
 
KEY RESULT AREASUsed to establish standards and objectives, key result areas are the chief tasks of a job identified during the job evaluation process.
 
KNOWLEDGE ASSETSThe parts of an organization intangible assets that relate specifically to knowledge, expertise, information, ideas, best practices, intellectual property and other capabilities.
 
KNOWLEDGE BROKERThe individual who facilitates the creation, sharing and use of knowledge in an organization by linking individuals with providers.
 
KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATIONKnowledge integration is broadly defined as the assimilation, extraction, transformation and loading of information from disparate systems into a single more unified, consistent and accurate data store used for evaluating, manipulating and reporting information.
 
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTThe process of creating, acquiring, sharing and managing knowledge to augment individual and organizational performance.
 
KNOWLEDGE MAPPINGA process used to create a summation of the knowledge an organization will need in order to support its overall goals, objectives, strategies and missions.
 
KNOWLEDGE WORKEREmployees whose job functions are primarily of an intellectual nature.
 
KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND ABILITIES (KSA)The attributes required to perform a job; generally demonstrated through qualifying experience, education or training.
 
KNOWLEDGE-BASED PAYA salary differentiation system that bases compensation on an individual education, experience, knowledge, skills or specialized training. Also referred to as skill based pay.
 
LABOR CERTIFICATIONLabor certification is a statement from the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) that a particular position at a particular company is "open" because no U.S. workers who satisfy the minimum requirements for the job are available. Alien labor certification programs are generally designed to assure that the admission of aliens to work in the United States on a permanent or temporary basis will not adversely affect the job opportunities, wages and working conditions of U.S. workers.
 
LABOR FORCEThe number of employed individuals in the civilian workforce and armed services.
 
LABOR LAW POSTINGFederal and state regulations requiring employers to post in conspicuous places a variety of labor law posters, including, but not limited to, information regarding employee rights under EEO, FMLA, OSHA, ADA, FLSA, as well as other labor laws.
 
LABOR PRODUCTIVITYThe correlation between a given output and the percentage of labor time used to produce the output.
 
LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACTA binding agreement governing wages, benefits, representation rights and other working conditions between a labor union and management.
 
LAYOFFA temporary termination of employees, or the elimination of jobs, during periods of economic downturn or organizational restructuring.
 
LEADERSHIPThe process, by which an individual determines direction, influences a group and directs the group toward a specific goal or organizational mission.
 
LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENTFormal and informal training and professional development programs designed for all management and executive-level employees to assist them in developing the leadership skills and styles required to deal with a variety of situations.
 
LEARNING STYLELearning styles are defined, classified, and identified in various ways. Broadly speaking, they are overall patterns that provide direction to learning and teaching. Learning style can also be described as a set of factors, behaviors, and attitudes that facilitate learning for an individual in a particular situation.
 
LEAVE SHARINGA leave program allowing employees to donate unused sick leave to a coworker who has exhausted all available sick leave and is out due to a long-term illness or injury.
 
LEAVE STACKINGUsed to define the practice of scheduling leave under FMLA in such a manner that the employee leave allowance for two consecutive calendar years is uninterrupted. Typically occurs when an employer uses the calendar-year method for determining the 12-month period under FMLA.
 
LIBELDefaming or harming an individual reputation in writing.
 
LIFE ACTIVITYFor purposes of Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act and ADA, functions that are limited by a person disability such as caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning and working.
 
LIFE CYCLE RECRUITMENTA process that begins with an identifiable work need, and then continues through a sourcing and search strategy, then progresses to a pre-qualification and assessment strategy, and concludes with hire. The cycle repeats itself again with next vacancy.
 
LINE OF PROGRESSIONA series of related jobs in a promotional sequence generally starting with less difficult, lower-paying jobs and progressing to more difficult, higher-paying jobs. Often, the lower jobs provide required training for movement to the higher-level jobs.
 
LITIGATIONA legal proceeding occurring in a federal or state court of law to determine and enforce legal rights.
 
LIVING WAGEA wage rate that is sufficient for a worker and his or her family to exist comfortably.
 
LOCALIZATIONThe strategy of applying locale-specific terminology and data to a specific product or application in order to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific market.
 
LOCKOUT TAGOUT RULEAn OSHA standard helping safeguard employees from hazardous energy while they are performing service or maintenance on machines and equipment. The standard identifies the practices and procedures necessary to shut down and lock out or tag out machines and equipment, requires that employees receive training in their role in the lockout tagout program and mandates that periodic inspections be conducted to maintain or enhance the energy control program.
 
LONG-TERM CARE INSURANCEAn insurance plan that provides coverage for individuals with long-term illnesses or disabilities by paying in whole or in part for long-term medical and nonmedical care services.
 
LOST WORKDAYSRefers to the particular number of days an employee is absent from work due to an injury or illness or the number of days which the employee is on restricted duty.
 
LUMP-SUM PAYMENTA fixed negotiated payment that is not typically included in an employee annual salary; often times given in lieu of pay increases.
 
MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENTTraining and developmental programs designed to provide new managers and existing managers with the resources needed to become more effective in their roles.
 
MANAGEMENT EMPLOYEEAn employee who meets the salary basis test and regularly manages or supervises two or more employees.
 
MANDATORY RETIREMENT AGE LAW OF 1978A statute which prohibits (with the exception of exempted employees and positions) employers from having policies or practices that call for mandatory retirement of employees under the age of 70.
 
MANPOWER PLANNINGThe process of assessing an employer’s current workforce content and composition in order to anticipate future staffing requirements needed to meet business goals and requirements.
 
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS)Required by OSHA, an MSDS is a detailed description of each hazardous chemical located in the workplace, which includes information regarding potential health risks, symptoms and treatment measures to be taken if exposure occurs.
 
MATRIX ORGANIZATIONAn organizational structure where employees report to more than one manager or supervisor.
 
MEAN WAGEThe average wage for a worker in a specified position or occupation, which is determined by adding together the total wages for all incumbents in a specific position or occupation and then dividing it by the total number of incumbents.
 
MEDIANThe middle value in a series of values arranged in rank order.
 
MEDIAN WAGEThe margin between the highest paid 50 percent and the lowest paid 50 percent of workers in a specific position or occupation.
 
MEDIATIONA private negotiation and decision-making process in which a mediator assists individuals or groups in finding a resolution to a particular issue or conflict.
 
MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS TESTINGA medical evaluation conducted on a post-offer basis by a company physician or an independent physician to ascertain whether or not a candidate is able to perform the physical requirements of a particular job.
 
MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNT (MSA)A savings account funded by employees through pretax contributions; can be used to pay for copayments, deductibles or medical expenses not covered by a health insurance benefit plan.
 
MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS (MSA)Savings accounts designated for out-of-pocket medical expenses. In an MSA, employers and individuals are allowed to contribute to a savings account on a pre-tax basis and carry over the unused funds at the end of the year. One major difference between a Flexible Spending Account (FSA) and a Medical Savings Account is the ability under an MSA to carry over the unused funds for use in a future year, instead of losing unused funds at the end of the year. Most MSAs allow unused balances and earnings to accumulate. Unlike FSAs, most MSAs are combined with a high-deductible or catastrophic health insurance plan.
 
MEDICAREA health insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration which is broken into two distinct categories 1) Medicare Part A helps with hospital costs; and 2) Medicare Part B requires a monthly fee and is used to pay medical costs for people 65 years of age and older, some disabled people under 65 years of age and people with end-stage renal disease (permanent kidney failure treated with dialysis or a transplant).
 
MENTAL HEALTH PARITY ACT (MHPA) OF 1996Prohibits group health plans and insurance companies that offer mental health benefits from setting annual or lifetime limits on mental health benefits that are lower than those limits set for any other condition.
 
MENTORINGA career development method whereby less experienced employees are matched with more experienced colleagues for guidance either through formal or informal programs.
 
MERGERThe joining of two or more different organizations under one common owner and management structure.
 
MERIT PAYA compensation system whereby base pay increases are determined by individual performance.
 
METRICSA measure used to determine the effectiveness and value of implemented HR programs in increasing performance and profits.
 
MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONSThe attributes of a job description which establishes a baseline for meeting the qualifications for a particular position.
 
MINIMUM WAGEThe smallest hourly wage that an employee may be paid for all hours worked, as mandated by federal or state law.
 
MINORITIESMen and women of those minority groups for whom EEO-1 reporting is required; that is, black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaskan Native. The term may refer to these groups in the aggregate or to an individual group.
 
MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISEA small business enterprise that is at least 51 percent owned by one or more minorities or, in the case of a publicly owned business, at least 51 percent of all classes or types of the stock is owned by one or more minorities and whose management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more minorities.
 
MISSION STATEMENTA statement illustrating what the company is, what the company does and where the company is headed.
 
MOONLIGHTINGWorking one or more full- or part-time jobs in addition to an individual regular full-time job.
 
MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATORA psychological test used to assess an individual personality type.
 
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT (NLRA) OF 1947The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), passed in 1935, provides that all employees have the right to form, join and assist labor organizations and to bargain collectively with their employers.
 
NATIONAL ORIGINThe country--including those that no longer exist—of one birth or of one ancestor birth. "National origin" and "ethnicity" often are used interchangeably, although "ethnic group" can refer to religion or color, as well as country of one ancestry.
 
NATURALIZATIONThe process by which an alien is made a citizen of the United States of America and relinquishes citizenship to any other country.
 
NEEDS ANALYSISA method of analyzing how employee skill deficits can be addressed through current or future training and professional development programs, as well as determining the types of training development programs required and how to prioritize training development.
 
NEGLIGENT HIRINGA claim made against an employer based on the premise of an employer obligation to not hire an applicant the employer knew or should have known was unsuitable and likely to behave inappropriately toward other employees.
 
NEGLIGENT REFERRALNegligent referral is defined as the failure of an employer to disclose complete and factual information about former or current employee to another employer.
 
NEGLIGENT RETENTIONThe act of failing to take appropriate disciplinary action (i.e., termination) against an employee the employer knew or should have known was unsuitable.
 
NEPOTISMFavoritism shown to relatives by individuals in a position of authority, such as managers or supervisors.
 
NETIQUETTERefers to Internet use rules of conduct, involving respecting others privacy and not doing anything online that is offensive, annoying or frustrating to other people.
 
NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUEA consensus planning tool used to identify the strengths of an organization, department or division, whereby participants are brought together to discuss important issues, problems and solutions.
 
NONCOMPETE AGREEMENTA contract restricting an employee from obtaining employment with a competitor within a specified industry, distance and or time frame.
 
NONCOMPLIANCEFailure to follow equal employment opportunity or affirmative action guidelines and the regulations applicable to them.
 
NONDISCLOSURE AGREEMENTA contract restricting an employee from disclosing confidential or proprietary information.
 
NONDISCRIMINATIONThe practice of not discriminating against members of disadvantaged or protected groups in hiring practices, policies, benefits or conditions of employment.
 
NONEXEMPT EMPLOYEEAn employee who does not meet any one of the Fair Labor Standards Act exemption tests and is paid on an hourly basis and covered by wage and hour laws regarding hours worked, overtime pay, etc.
 
NONTRADITIONAL EMPLOYMENTUsed to define occupations or specific fields where women typically comprise less than 25 percent of the workforce.
 
NORMATIVE FORECASTINGA method of projecting future needs in order to determine what developments will be required to meet those needs.
 
NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA)An agreement reached by the United States, Canada and Mexico that instituted a schedule for the phasing out of tariffs and eliminated a variety of fees and other hindrances to encourage free trade between the three North American countries.
 
NOTICEIn wrongful discharge cases, this doctrine is used to determine whether or not an employer gave an employee adequate advanced notice of the potential consequences if a specific behavior or conduct was not improved upon.
 
O-NET (OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORK)Administered and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration, the Occupational Information Network--O-NE--is a database that replaced the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) as the nation primary source of occupational information.
 
OBSERVATION INTERVIEWThe process of observing employees while performing their respective jobs or tasks, used to collect data regarding specific jobs or tasks.
 
OCCUPATIONAL GROUPSUsed to classify specific occupations into a specific category, such as professionals, technical hi-tech, administrative clerical, sales, service, retail, etc.
 
OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS DISEASEDefined by OSHA as "any abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to factors associated with employment."
 
OCCUPATIONAL INJURYAn injury sustained during the course of employment, which results in the employee requiring medical treatment other then minor first aid and which results in the employee being absent from work as a result of such injury for one or more work days or results in work restrictions.
 
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (OSHA) OF 1970A law setting forth standards that employers must comply with in order to provide working conditions that are safe and free from any health hazards for all employees. Additionally, the law also requires employers to provide employees with protection against workplace hazards that could result in illness, injury or death to an individual, as well as to communicate to employees the information on hazardous materials or chemicals they may be required to handle.
 
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATIONA Department of Labor office responsible for overseeing and assuring the safety and health of America workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.
 
OFF SHORINGThe practice of relocating business processes, such as production manufacturing, to a lower cost international location.
 
OFF-DUTY HOURSUsed to define the periods of time during which an employee is totally and completely relieved of any and all job duties and is free to attend to his or her own personal activities.
 
OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE (OFCCP)Division of the Employment Standards Administration in the Department of Labor responsible for enforcing three statutes for federal contractors and subcontractors Executive Order No. 11246, the Rehabilitation Act, and the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act. OFCCP enforces the three laws through the use of compliance reviews, complaint investigations, administrative procedures and judicial procedures.
 
OLDER WORKERS BENEFIT PROTECTION ACT (OWBPA) OF 1990OWBPA amended the ADEA prohibiting all employers from age discrimination in employee benefits programs by either providing equal benefits for older and younger workers or by spending an equal amount on benefits for both groups. It also provides specifications on the requirements for ADEA waivers.
 
OMBUDSPERSONA neutral third party that helps individuals or groups in conflict resolve disputes by mediating, coaching and facilitating communication between the parties and recommending an appropriate resolution.
 
ON-CALL PAYAdditional compensation awarded to employees who are required to remain on call during off-duty hours.
 
ON-CALL TIMEUsed to define periods of time when an employee is off duty but is required to remain on or close to the company premises or to respond to a call or page within a specified period of time, resulting in the employee being unable to effectively use such time to attend to his or her own personal activities.
 
ON-THE-JOB TRAININGTraining provided to employees by managers and supervisors; conducted at the actual worksite utilizing demonstration and actual performance of job tasks to be accomplished.
 
OPEN ENROLLMENT PERIODThe period of time designated by the employer health or other benefit plan when employees may enroll in new benefit plans or make changes to existing benefit plans.
 
OPEN SHOPAn organization that hires workers without regard to their membership in a labor union.
 
OPEN-BOOK MANAGEMENTA management strategy emphasizing employee empowerment by making the organization financial data available to all employees. The goal of this type of management program is to make employees view themselves as more of a business partner and increase their awareness of how their actions and decisions affect the organization bottom line.
 
OPERATING BUDGETA detailed projection of all projected income and expenses during a specified future period.
 
OPINION LETTERA written document issued by government agencies used to provide a ruling on a particular issue.
 
OPINION SURVEYA tool used to solicit and assess employee opinions, feelings, perceptions and expectations regarding a variety of managerial and organizational issues.
 
OPT-OUT PROVISIONAn employer benefit plan provision that offers cash, extra benefits or additional credits in return for an employee reducing the level of benefits he or she selects under a flexible benefit cafeteria-style program or providing extra cash compensation to those employees who choose not to elect any benefit coverage.
 
ORAL REPRIMANDA verbal warning given to an employee by a manager or supervisor as a means of correcting inappropriate behavior or conduct.
 
ORGANIZATION CHARTA graphic representation outlining how authority and responsibility are distributed within an organization.
 
ORGANIZATION CULTUREAn organization attitude and values regarding itself, employees, customers and the general public. It encompasses the manner things are done within the organization based on defined policies and practices.
 
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENTA planned organization-wide effort to improve and increase the organization effectiveness, productivity, return on investment and overall employee job satisfaction through planned interventions in the organization processes.
 
ORGANIZATION PLANNINGThe process of transforming an organization goals, objectives, philosophy and mission into practices and policies.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION THEORYA motivational theory suggesting that an individual will behave in a manner that helps him or her avoid potential negative outcomes and achieve agreeable outcomes.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNThe process of establishing and arranging the elements of an organization structure.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL DISPLAYAn organizational display is a detailed graphical or tabular chart, text, spreadsheet or similar presentation of the contractor organizational structure. It must identify each organizational unit in the establishment and show the relationship of each organizational unit to the other organizational units in the establishment.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILEAn organizational profile is a depiction of the staffing pattern within an establishment. It is one method contractors use to determine whether barriers to equal employment opportunity exist in their organizations. It provides an overview of the workforce at the establishment that may assist in identifying organizational units where women or minorities are underrepresented or concentrated.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL SURVEYThe process of evaluating and analyzing an organization structure and other major components to determine whether they are suitably meeting the organization current and future needs.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATIONRefers to organization-wide changes, such as restructuring operations, introducing new technologies, processes, services or products, implementing new programs, re-engineering, etc.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL UNITAn organizational unit is any component that is part of the contractor corporate structure. In a more traditional organization, it might be a department, division, section, branch or group. In a less traditional organization, it might be a project team or job family.
 
ORIENTATIONThe introduction of employees to their jobs, co-workers and the organization by providing them with information regarding such items as policies, procedures, company history, goals, culture and work rules.
 
OTHER ELIGIBLE VETERANOther eligible veterans are those individuals who served on active duty in the U.S. military, ground, naval or air service during a war or in a campaign or expedition for which a campaign badge has been authorized.
 
OUTCOMES ASSESSMENTA strategy used to evaluate and measure the results of an instructional method or program.
 
OUTPLACEMENTA benefit offered by the employer to displaced employees that may consist of such services as job counseling, training and job-finding assistance.
 
OUTREACH PROGRAMSA method of keeping employees informed of company programs and services available to them by utilizing such things as postings, newsletters, memos or meetings.
 
OUTSOURCINGA contractual agreement between an employer and an external third-party provider whereby the employer transfers responsibility and management for certain HR, benefit or training-related functions or services to the external provider.
 
OVERTIMEIn accordance with the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), it is the term used to define work that is performed in excess of 40 hours per week.
 
PAID LEAVE BANKA benefit program granting employees a bank consisting of a specific number of paid days that can be used for absences related to sickness, vacation or personal reasons.
 
PAID TIME OFF (PTO)A benefit program granting employees a specific number of vacation or personal days off which that are paid by the employer. The number of days is generally based on the employer policy for accrual of paid time off.
 
PAIRED COMPARISONA form of rating, in which the rater compares, one by one, the performance of each member in a group with the performance of every other member in the group.
 
PARENTAL LEAVEA benefit designed to provide employees with approved paid or unpaid time off following the birth or adoption of a child or to care for a dependent.
 
PARETO CHARTA bar graph used to rank in order of importance information such as causes or reasons for specific problems, so that measures for process improvement can be established.
 
PART-TIME EMPLOYEEAn individual who continually works less than 40 hours per week (standard workweek hours are based on individual employer policy, therefore, a 40-hour workweek is only a guideline; this number could be higher or lower).
 
PARTIAL DISABILITYAn illness or injury that prevents an individual from performing one or more functions of his or her job.
 
PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENTA management style, developed by Motorola, that involves employees in the decision-making process.
 
PATERNITY LEAVEA benefit designed to provide fathers of newborn children with paid or unpaid time off from work following the birth of the child.
 
PAY ADJUSTMENTAny change made to the pay rate of an employee, such as an increase or decrease to the rate of pay.
 
PAY COMPRESSIONA situation occurring when only a small difference in pay exists between employees, regardless of their knowledge, skills, abilities or experience. Oftentimes, it is the result of a market-rate for a given job surpassing the increases historically awarded to long-term employees.
 
PAY GRADESA method used to group jobs together that have approximately the same relative internal worth and are paid at the same rate.
 
PAY RANGEAssociated with pay grades, the range sets the upper and lower compensation boundaries for jobs within that range.
 
PAY STRUCTUREA structure of job grades and pay ranges established within an organization. May be expressed as job grades or job evaluation points.
 
PAYBACK AGREEMENTAn agreement between an employer and an employee used primarily for relocated employees, stating that an employee will not voluntarily terminate his or her employment with the organization for a specified duration of time, effective from the date of relocation. Failure to abide by the terms of the agreement results in the employee being responsible for paying back a portion of any and all costs incurred by the employer on the employee behalf. Also used by employers that pay for expensive job-related or professional development training or educational courses.
 
PAYROLL RECORDSDocumentation created and maintained by the employer, which contains information regarding hours worked, salaries, wages, commissions, bonuses, vacation sick pay, contributions to qualified health and pension plans, net pay and deductions for all employees on the employer payroll for the year.
 
PEER APPRAISALA performance appraisal strategy whereby an employee is reviewed by his or her peers who have sufficient opportunity to examine the individual job performance.
 
PENSION PLANAn employer benefit plan funded through insurance, a trust, general assets or other separately maintained funds designed to provide employees with a monthly income benefit upon retirement.
 
PERCEIVED DISABILITYA person who does not meet the definition of a disabled individual in accordance with the Americans With Disabilities Act but is regarded by his or her employer as having a mental or physical disability .
 
PERFORMANCE APPRAISALA periodic review and evaluation of an individual job performance.
 
PERFORMANCE COUNSELINGThe process of improving employee performance and productivity by providing the employee with feedback regarding areas where he or she is doing well and areas that may require improvement.
 
PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PLANA plan implemented by a manager or supervisor that is designed to provide employees with constructive feedback, facilitate discussions between an employee and his or her supervisor regarding performance-related issues, and outline specific areas of performance requiring improvement.
 
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENTThe process of maintaining or improving employee job performance through the use of performance assessment tools, coaching and counseling as well as providing continuous feedback.
 
PERFORMANCE MONITORINGThe practice of monitoring employees while they perform their jobs through the use of surveillance cameras, telephone or computer monitoring.
 
PERFORMANCE STANDARDSThe tasks, functions or behavioral requirements established by the employer as goals to be accomplished by an employee.
 
PERFORMANCE-BASED PAYA variable pay strategy that pays employees based on their individual performance and contributions, rather than the value of the job they are performing.
 
PERSONAL DAYSA benefit designed to provide employees with an allotment of paid days off in addition to holidays, sick days or vacation days, which they can use to attend to personal matters.
 
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTClothing and other work accessories (i.e., safety glasses, hearing protection, etc.) designed to create a barrier against potential workplace hazards.
 
PERSONALITY TESTA test instrument usually involving a standardized series of questions that are used to evaluate an individual personality characteristics.
 
PERSONNEL RECORDSAll information pertaining to individual employees, which is collected and maintained by the employer and is essential to the employer for handling various employment-related matters.
 
PHASED RETIREMENTA work schedule arrangement that allows employees to gradually reduce their full-time hours over a period of time.
 
PHYSICAL ABILITY TESTA test instrument used to determine an individual ability to perform the functions or tasks of a job where physical strength or endurance is required.
 
PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONA medical examination performed by a company physician or an independent physician to ascertain whether or not an individual is able to perform the physical requirements of a particular job.
 
PIECE RATEA per-piece rate system that pays employees based on the number of pieces produced.
 
PINK SLIPA written or verbal notice given to employees who are being terminated or laid-off.
 
PLACEMENT GOALSOther eligible veterans are those individuals who served on active duty in the U.S. military, ground, naval or air service during a war or in a campaign or expedition for which a campaign badge has been authorized.
 
PLAN ADMINISTRATORAn individual or plan sponsor designated by the instrument under which the plan is operated to be responsible for the administration of pension and welfare benefit plans.
 
POLICY PROCEDURES MANUALA detailed written document designed to assist managers and supervisors in carrying out their day-today responsibilities by acquainting them with all of the organization policies and the procedures required to implement those policies.
 
POSITION CONTROLA workforce planning tool that imposes certain rules or restrictions on the creation, and filling of positions as a means to manage and control the costs associated with any given position within the organization.
 
POSITIVE DISCIPLINEA disciplinary strategy geared toward reducing and improving an individual unfavorable behavior or conduct by rewarding positive behavior rather than focusing on and punishing negative behavior.
 
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENTThe process of acknowledging specific behaviors with positive feedback, such as a smile, praise or reward.
 
POST- TAX CONTRIBUTIONSContributions made to a benefit plan that are subject to applicable state or federal tax withholding requirements.
 
POST-ACCIDENT TESTINGThe process of testing an employee involved in a workplace accident for the presence of drugs or alcohol.
 
PRACTITIONERAn individual who practices a learned profession.
 
PRE-EMPLOYMENT TESTINGThe practice of issuing tests to potential employees on a pre-employment basis in order to determine an applicant suitability for a certain position. These tests may include, but are not limited to, drug and alcohol tests, medical examinations, skills tests, physical agility tests, honesty integrity tests or personality tests.
 
PRE-SACKINGRefers to the use of resume boards to determine which current employees are looking for a job online
 
PRE-TAX CONTRIBUTIONSContributions made to a benefit plan that are exempt from all applicable state or federal tax withholding requirements.
 
PREDICTIVE VALIDITYUsed in the test validation process to measure the relationship between test scores and actual job performance.
 
PREEXISTING CONDITIONAny condition for which a person is currently receiving treatment, has been advised to receive treatment or for which a prudent person would seek treatment.
 
PREGNANCY DISCRIMINATION ACT (PDA) OF 1978An amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibiting discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions, requiring pregnancy or related conditions to be treated in the same manner as any other temporary disability.
 
PREMIUM ONLY PLAN (POP)Considered to be the most basic type of Section 125 plan, a POP is a benefit plan that is designed to allow employees to elect to make premium contributions on either a pre-tax or post-tax basis.
 
PREMIUM PAYAdditional compensation paid for work performed outside of regularly scheduled work hours.
 
PREPAID GROUP LEGAL PLANA benefit plan that provides employees, their spouses or dependents with assistance in obtaining legal services, which have been prepaid in whole or in part by the employer.
 
PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFITSTypically a provision included in a group health plan designed to provide covered employees and their dependents with payment assistance for medically prescribed drugs.
 
PREVAILING WAGEA rate of pay determined by the U.S. Department of Labor based upon the geographic area for a given class of labor and type of project.
 
PRIMA FACIE CASELatin for “at first view” or “at first appearance,” a prima-facie case is a lawsuit that requires an employer to articulate a reason that sufficiently proves that any decision or action taken was made based on legitimate and nondiscriminatory factors.
 
PRIVACYRefers to information about an employee which he or she regards as personal or private (i.e., medical information, financial data, etc.) and the right of that individual to not have such information shared with others.
 
PRIVATE LETTER RULINGA formal document issued by the Internal Revenue Service announcing tax decisions or changes.
 
PRO FORMAThe term pro forma comes from the Latin phrase meaning, "as a matter of form". The term is very broad and its meaning depends on the context in which it is being used. Basically it is a term used to describe the presentation of data, usually financial statements, where the data reflects information as if the state of the world were different from that which is in fact the case.
 
PROBATIONUsed as a form of discipline, it is a specified period of time during which an individual performance or conduct is closely monitored.
 
PROBATIONARY PERIODA specified period of time (typically 30-90 days) where a newly hired, promoted or transferred employee job performance is evaluated. Primarily used by supervisors to closely observe an employee work, help the employee adjust to the position and reject any employee whose performance does not meet required standards.
 
PROCESS REENGINEERINGThe process of improving business practices or methods by creating and implementing new processes or making changes to existing processes.
 
PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYER ORGANIZATION (PEO)An organization that enters into a join-employment relationship with an employer, by leasing employees to the employer, allowing the PEO to share and manage many employer-related responsibilities and liabilities. Employers outsource their human resource functions, such employee benefits, compensation and payroll administration, workers compensation and employment taxes.
 
PROFIT SHARING PLANA qualified retirement plan established and maintained by an employer which enables employees and their beneficiaries to participate in the profits of the employer business.
 
PROGRESSIVE DISCIPLINEA form of discipline whereby increasingly harsher penalties are awarded each time an employee is disciplined for the same or a different performance infraction or policy or work-rule violation. Generally, the sequence is an oral warning to written warnings to suspension and finally termination.
 
PROMOTIONCareer advancement within an organization, which includes increased authority, level of responsibility, status and pay.
 
PROPRIETARY INFORMATIONInformation associated with a company products, business or activities, including such items as financial data; trade secrets; product research and development; product designs; marketing plans or techniques; computer programs; processes; and know-how that has been clearly identified and communicated by the company as proprietary, a trade secret or confidential.
 
PROTECTED CHARACTERISTICSLegal terminology referring to areas protected by federal or state statutes.
 
PROTECTED CLASSA legal term describing certain groups, such as women, older and disabled individuals, Vietnam-era veterans and minorities.
 
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTA written, visual or verbal assessment administered to determine cognitive and emotional skills.
 
QUALIFIED DISABLED PERSONA qualified disabled person is an individual with a disability who is capable of performing a particular job, with or without reasonable accommodation.
 
QUALIFIED DOMESTIC RELATIONS ORDER (QDRO)An order, decree, judgment or administrative notice (including a settlement agreement) that establishes the rights of another person (the “alternate payee”) to benefits; issued by a domestic relations court or other court of competent jurisdiction or through an administrative process established under state law.
 
QUALIFIED MEDICAL CHILD SUPPORTAn order, decree, judgment or administrative notice order (QMCSO) (including a settlement agreement) requiring health coverage for a child; issued by a domestic relations court or other court of competent jurisdiction or through an administrative process established under state law.
 
QUALIFIED PLANA defined benefit or defined contribution pension plan covered by ERISA and IRS regulations qualifying for certain tax advantages for both the employer and the participant.
 
QUALIFIED SPECIAL DISABLED VETERANA special disabled veteran who satisfies the requisite skill, experience, education and other job-related requirements of the employment position such veteran holds or desires and who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of such position.
 
QUALITY CIRCLEA carefully selected group of employees who voluntarily meet on a regular basis to identify problems and make recommendation by using various techniques for analyzing and solving work-related problems.
 
QUID PRO QUOLegal terminology essentially meaning “what for what” or “something for something.” It is the concept of getting something of value in exchange for giving something of value.
 
QUID PRO QUO HARASSMENTQuid pro harassment involves expressed or implied demands for sexual favors in exchange for some benefit (a promotion, pay increase, etc.) or to avoid some detriment (termination, demotion, etc.) in the workplace. By definition, it can only be perpetrated by someone in a position of power or authority over another (i.e., manager or supervisor over a subordinate).
 
QUITA voluntary resignation from employment that is initiated by the employee.
 
QUOTA SYSTEMIn affirmative action systems, it is a means of attempting to achieve workplace balance by hiring and or promoting specified numbers or ratios of minorities or women in positions from which they have been excluded.
 
RACERace is a division of humankind with certain distinguishing characteristics in common which indicate distinctive origins.
 
RACE-NORMINGThe practice of adjusting employment test scores to compensate for racial differences.
 
RANDOM TESTINGDrug and alcohol tests administered by an employer that selects employees to be tested on a random basis.
 
RANK ORDERA rating method where the performance of a group, process or product is arranged in a particular order, such as highest to lowest.
 
REASONABLE ACCOMMODATIONModifying or adjusting a job process or a work environment to better enable a qualified individual with a disability to be considered for or perform the essential functions of a job.
 
REASONABLE PERSON STANDARDA standard used in sexual harassment suits, referring to conduct or behavior so offensive in nature that any reasonable person, regardless of sex, would agree the conduct or behavior should be illegal.
 
REASONABLE SUSPICION TESTINGA drug or alcohol test administered to an employee due to a performance or policy infraction or poor or erratic behavior.
 
REASSIGNMENTTransferring individuals to alternative positions where their talents or skills may be best utilized to their own or the organization benefit or where they are better able to perform the job in accordance with required standards.
 
RECIPROCAL REVIEWAn appraisal method where the subordinate and the manager are evaluated by each other based on agreed upon performance criteria.
 
RECOGNITIONAn acknowledgement of an employee exceptional performance or achievements expressed in the form of praise, commendation or gratitude.
 
RECORDABLE ILLNESS INJURYAll occupational injuries and illnesses that require more than basic first aid treatment, or deaths that occurred in the workplace.
 
RECRUITMENTThe practice of soliciting and actively seeking applicants to fill recently vacated or newly created positions using a variety of methods (i.e., internal job postings, advertising in newspapers or electronic job boards sites, utilizing search firms, or listing position with trade and professional associations, etc).
 
RED CIRCLE RATEA pay rate that is above the maximum range assigned to the job grade. Employees are usually not eligible for additional pay increases until the range maximums exceed the individual pay rate.
 
REDEPLOYMENTThe reassignment of employees to other departments or functions as an alternative to laying them off.
 
REDUCTION IN FORCEAn involuntary separation of an employee or groups of employees due to economic pressures, lack of work, organizational changes or other reasons of business necessity that require a reduction in staff.
 
REENGINEERINGThe redesigning of business and work processes, policies or organizational structure.
 
REFERENCE CHECKINGThe process of verifying information supplied by applicants on an application or resume.
 
REGULAR FULL PART-TIME EMPLOYEEAn individual who has been hired by an employer to work a predetermined amount of hours per week in a position appointment of indefinite duration.
 
REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973A federal statute requiring federal agencies to ensure that electronic and information technology systems are accessible to individuals with disabilities when their jobs require the use of electronic or information technology systems.
 
REINFORCEMENTThe practice of providing positive feedback to an individual or groups of individuals after completion of a particular project or achievement of a particular goal.
 
RELEASE AGREEMENTA type of legal written document executed by an employer and signed by an employee whereby the employee relinquishes certain rights in exchange for some form of consideration, such as a benefit the employee would not have otherwise received had he or she not been discharged.
 
RELIABILITYA measure of the ability of a test or other appraisal instrument to evaluate what is being measured on a consistent basis.
 
RELIGIONIncludes all aspects of religious observance and practice and religious beliefs.
 
RELIGIOUS ACCOMMODATIONAn accommodation made for an employee, such as time off from work, so that he or she may observe a religious holiday or attend a religious ceremony or their day of Sabbath such as Saturday or Sunday.
 
RELOCATION ASSISTANCEA type of benefit offered to employees who accept work assignments in new locations. Typically takes the form of assistance with moving costs, travel expenses, temporary lodging and home-buying selling.
 
REMEDIAL COUNSELINGA type of employee counseling used to correct performance or behavior-related issues.
 
REMEDIAL TRAININGDescribes a method of teaching intended to help people who have basic skills deficiencies, such reading or writing.
 
REMEDIATIONA strategy designed to conquer a deficiency in an employee’s behavior, performance or skills.
 
REMOTE EMPLOYEESEmployees who work off company premises and are removed from their supervisors or mangers.
 
REMOTE MANAGERA manager who supervises employees who perform their work at a site other then the employer premises.
 
REPATRIATEThe process of returning to the United States after being placed on a long-term international assignment.
 
REPRIMANDAn oral or written reproach given to an employee as part of disciplinary action.
 
REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP)A document an organization sends to a vendor inviting the vendor to submit a bid for a product or service.
 
RESIDENT ALIENA resident alien is a lawful permanent resident of the United States at any time if he or she has been given the privilege, according to the immigration laws, of residing permanently as an immigrant. This status usually exists if the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services has issued a green card.
 
RESOLUTIONThe disposition of a disagreement or grievance through alternative dispute resolution methods.
 
RESTRICTIVE COVENANTA contract clause requiring executives or other highly skilled employees to refrain from seeking and obtaining employment with competitor organizations in a specific geographical region and for a specified period of time.
 
RESTRUCTURINGChanging an organizational structure in order to make it more efficient and cost effective.
 
RESUMEA written document outlining an individual’s work experience, skills, educational background, accomplishments and other related information supporting his or her career goal.
 
RETALIATORY DISCHARGEA form of discriminatory discharge that occurs when an employer dismisses an employee as retaliation against the employee for a specific action.
 
RETENTION BONUSAn incentive payment used to entice employees from leaving the organization. Typically employees are asked to sign an agreement stating they will remain employed for a specific duration or until the completion of a particular task or project in order to be eligible for the bonus.
 
RETIREE SKILL BANKA pool of retired former employees who are rehired on a temporary or contractual basis.
 
RETIREMENT PLANA written qualified or nonqualified benefit plan, funded by employer and employee contributions, that provides retirement income benefits for employees.
 
RETRAININGTraining that is provided for a certain job to enable an employee to acquire the necessary skills to work with new processes, procedures or equipment.
 
RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI)A ratio of the benefit or profit derived from a specific investment, compared with the cost of the investment itself.
 
REVERSE DISCRIMINATIONEmployment policies or practices that result in discriminatory treatment against applicants or employees who are not minorities or members of a disadvantaged group.
 
REWARD SYSTEMA formal or informal program used to recognize individual employee achievements, such as accomplishment of goals or projects or submission of creative ideas.
 
RIGHT-TO-KNOWAn OSHA standard providing workers with protection from hazardous substances in the workplace by requiring employers to keep employees informed of any hazardous substances that they may be working with, as well as the hazards and symptoms associated with the substance.
 
RIGHT-TO-SUE LETTERA letter issued by the EEOC, once a charge has been recorded and processed, informing individuals who filed the charge that they have the right to further pursue their charges in a federal or state court.
 
RIGHT-TO-WORKA state law preventing labor-management agreements requiring an individual to join a union as a condition of employment.
 
RIGHTSIZINGAn approach to reducing staff, whereby jobs are prioritized in order to identify and eliminate unnecessary work. This method uses a selection criteria based on individual jobs, rather than people, in order to avoid possibly laying off the wrong employees.
 
RISK MANAGEMENTThe use of insurance and other strategies in an effort to minimize an organization exposure to liability in the event a loss or injury occurs.
 
ROLE PLAYINGA training method in which each participant purposely acts out or assumes a particular character or role.
 
ROLLING YEARUnder FMLA regulations, a rolling year is defined as a 12-month period measured backward from the date an employee first uses leave.
 
ROTATIONAL TRAININGA training method where employees are rotated among a variety of different jobs, departments or company functions for a certain period of time.
 
RURAL SOURCINGAn outsourcing method that is based on transferring jobs away from higher cost urban areas to lower cost rural areas.
 
SABBATICALA voluntary arrangement whereby an employer allows an employee paid or unpaid leave for a specified duration of time in order for the employee to pursue a course of advanced training, teach or perform a public service. In education, it is a period of time college or university teachers are allowed to stop their usual work in order to study or travel, usually while continuing to be paid (typically every seven years).
 
SAFE HARBOR REGULATIONSGuidelines regulated by the Department of Labor, which, when fully complied with, may reduce or limit the liability of a plan fiduciary.
 
SAFETY TRAININGA teaching tool used to help employees become more safety-conscious in all aspects of safety.
 
SALARY COMPRESSIONPay differentials too small to be considered equitable. The term may apply to differences between (1) the pay of supervisors and subordinates; (2) the pay of experienced and newly hired incumbents of the same job; and (3) pay-range midpoints in successive job grades.
 
SALARY GRADEA compensation level expressed as a salary range, which has been established for each position within the organization.
 
SALARY RANGEA range of pay rates, from minimum to maximum, set for a specific pay grade.
 
SALARY STRUCTUREA structure of job grades and pay ranges established within an organization. May be expressed as job grades or job evaluation points.
 
SALES COMPENSATIONA compensation system designed for individuals employed in managerial sales or sales representative positions. Individuals are paid on a commission or percentage of sale basis, in accordance with achieving specified sales goals.
 
SALTINGRefers to paid union organizers who apply for jobs with an employer for the purpose of organizing the employer’s workforce.
 
SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was enacted to increase accountability of corporations to their shareholders in the wake of recent accounting scandals. There are many financial provisions that are not germane to HR basics. Two provisions are of special interest to HR professionals--the whistleblower protection provision and the 401(k) blackout notice provision.
 
SCALABILITYThe degree to which a computer application or component can be expanded in size, volume or number of users served and continue to function properly.
 
SCANLON PLANA gainsharing program in which employees share in specific cost savings that are due to employee effort. The Scanlon Plan involves much employee participation, predating quality circles with most of the same techniques.
 
SCHEDULE INTERVIEWAn interviewing format in which each candidate is asked for the same exact information.
 
SCHOOL-TO-WORK OPPORTUNITIES ACT OF 1994A national effort to develop a school-to-work system to assist students in making the transition from school to the adult workforce. The goal of the Act is to create well-marked paths students can follow to move from school to good first jobs or from school to continued education and training. The Act focuses on broadening educational and career opportunities for all students by encouraging state and local partnerships between businesses and educational institutions.
 
SCREENINGUsually the first step taken during the interviewing process, involving reviewing prospective candidate applications resumes, verifying information supplied by the candidate, conducting interviews and examining test results.
 
SEARCH FIRMAn organization or individual consultants working on a retainer or fee basis who provide the service of searching and screening potential candidates for prospective employers. Typically search firms are retained for higher-level professional or managerial positions.
 
SELECTION PROCESSAny step, combination of steps or procedure used as a basis for any employment decision, including, but not limited to, informal or casual interviews, unscored application forms, paper and pencil tests, performance tests, training programs, probationary periods and physical, education and work experience requirements, as well as the decision-making process used in determining whether or not to hire or promote.
 
SELF-DIRECTED TEAMSA multi-skilled, cross-functional group of employees possessing full empowerment who share responsibilities for producing a particular service or product.
 
SELF-EMPLOYEDAn individual who has earned income for the current or preceding year from self-employment, within the meaning of I.R.C. 401(c) (2), or an individual who would have had such income, except for the fact that the relevant business did not incur a profit for the year.
 
SELF-FUNDING SELF-INSURANCEA benefit plan whereby the employer assumes all the risk, paying out for claims but saving the cost of any associated premiums.
 
SEMI-SKILLED WORKERSemi-skilled workers have to be able to read, write and communicate but are usually not required to have educational or apprenticeship credentials to qualify for jobs. Training time is short, task specific and generally doesn’t require much in terms of reasoning skills.
 
SEMINARA facilitator-directed meeting or conference consisting of groups of individuals gathered to study a specific subject matter.
 
SENIORITYStatus determined by the length of time an employee has worked for a specific employer, department or position within the organization.
 
SENSITIVITY TRAININGA form of individual counseling geared toward increasing self-awareness and sensitivity to others. It aims to assist key employees in developing their leadership skills surrounding issues of diversity and harassment prevention.
 
SERIOUS HEALTH CONDITIONAn illness, injury, impairment or physical or mental condition that involves inpatient care in a hospital, hospice or residential medical care facility; or continuing treatment by a health care provider.
 
SERVICE AWARDPart of a formal or informal recognition program that rewards employees based on length of service.
 
SEVERANCE PAYA form of short-term salary continuation awarded to employees who are being terminated. Severance payments often equal one week pay for each year of service.
 
SEXThe classification of people as male or female.
 
SEX DISCRIMINATIONDiscriminatory conduct or actions based on sex or pregnancy, as it relates to conditions of employment, benefits, pay and opportunities for advancement.
 
SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975The Sex Discrimination Act of 1975 prohibits discrimination against individuals based on sex or marital status in areas of employment, education, the provision of goods, facilities and services or in the management of premises.
 
SEX REASSIGNMENTRefers to surgical alteration, which is a part of "transition."
 
SEXUAL HARASSMENTUnwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.
 
SEXUAL ORIENTATIONThe scientifically accurate term for an individual enduring physical, romantic, emotional and or spiritual attraction to members of the same and or opposite sex, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and heterosexual orientations. (Closeted describes a person who is not open about his or her sexual orientation.)
 
SHIFT DIFFERENTIALAdditional compensation, usually expressed as cents per hour, paid as an incentive for employees to accept working a less-than-desirable work shift (i.e., 2 nd or 3 rd shift).
 
SHORT-TERM DISABILITYA benefit designed to provide temporary income replacement for worker absent due to illness or injury, but who is expected to return to work within a specified timeframe.
 
SICK LEAVEPaid time off granted to employees who are out of work due to an illness or injury.
 
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIPA management theory stating that different situations call for different leadership styles and that essentially there is no one best way to lead.
 
SKILLAbility to perform a mental or motor activity that contributes to the effective performance of a job task.
 
SKILL GAPA deficiency in basic writing, reading, mathematical or oral communication skills.
 
SKILL-BASED PAYA salary differentiation system that bases compensation on an individual’s education, experience, knowledge, skills or specialized training.
 
SKILLS INVENTORYA list of skills or competencies possessed by an individual.
 
SKILLS TRAININGTraining provided to employees to help them ascertain the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their current jobs; also used as a retraining method when new systems or processes are introduced.
 
SLANDERFalse defamation expressed as spoken words, signs or gestures, which cause damage to the character or reputation of the individual being defamed.
 
SLOW LEARNERA term used to describe individuals with mental disabilities and an IQ of between 75 and 90.
 
SNOWBIRD PROGRAMA term used to describe a form of alternative work arrangement whereby employees (typically retired individuals) move to warmer climates in the winter months and return to work only during the Spring summer months.
 
SOCIAL SECURITYA federal program under the Social Security Act which provides for retirement, disability and other related benefits for workers and their eligible dependents.
 
SOCIAL SECURITY CARDA card issued by the Social Security Administration displaying an individual full legal name and social security number assigned to the individual.
 
SOFT SKILLSSkills required to perform a certain job where the job is defined in terms of expected outcomes, but the process to achieve the outcome varies.
 
SOLE PROPRIETORSHIPA business enterprise in which an individual is fully and personally liable for all the obligations of the business, is entitled to all profits and exercises complete managerial control.
 
SPAN OF CONTROLA management principle expressing that a limit exists to the number of people an individual can effectively and successfully manage.
 
SPECIAL DISABLED VETERANA person entitled to disability compensation under laws administered by the Veterans Administration for disability rated at 30 percent or more; or rated at 10-20 percent in the case of a veteran who has been determined to have a serious employment handicap under 38 USC 3106; or a person whose discharge or release from active duty was for a service-connected disability incurred.
 
SPECIALIZATIONA principle stating that, as an organization grows, work within the organization needs to be divided in order to keep jobs from becoming so specialized or complex that they require a greater range of skills that essentially cannot be performed by one individual.
 
SPOT REWARDSCash and noncash awards given to employees for ideas submitted or accomplishments benefiting the organization.
 
STAFF LEASINGThe practice of an employer directly hiring an employee on a temporary basis for an indefinite period of time instead of utilizing the services of a temporary staffing agency.
 
STAFFINGThe function within an organization responsible for recruitment, screening and selection of employees. Oftentimes, this function may also be responsible for other areas of employment, such as orientation, retention, training and termination of staff.
 
STAFFING METRICSMeasures used to determine costs associated with recruitment and hiring, time to fill start for open positions and recruiter workload activity.
 
STANDARD SCOREA score derived from the mean performance of a group on a test, as well as the comparative performance of all the individuals who took the test.
 
STANDARDIZATIONDesign and implementation of consistent specifications for procedures, practices, materials, machinery or other equipment or other types of products and services.
 
STANDARDIZED INTERVIEWA form of interviewing that uses the same subject matter and identically sequenced questions, then evaluating responses to determine the differences between candidates.
 
STANDARDIZED TESTINGA written test, the scores of which are interpreted by referencing the scores of a norm group that has taken the test and which is considered to be representative of the population that takes the test.
 
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONLaws prescribing deadlines for filing lawsuits within a certain time after events, which are the source of the claim, occur.
 
STATUTORY BENEFITSBenefits that are mandated by federal or state laws, such as Social Security, unemployment insurance and workers compensation.
 
STOCK OPTION PLANAn organizational program that it that grants employees the option of purchasing a specific number of stock in the company at a future date.
 
STOP LOSS INSURANCEA contract established between a self-insured employer and an insurance provider providing for carrier coverage if a claim incurred exceeds a specified dollar amount over a predetermined period of time.
 
STRATEGIC HRThe process of taking a long-term approach to Human Resource Management through the development and implementation of HR programs that address and solve business problems and directly contribute to major long-term business objectives.
 
STRATEGIC STAFFINGThe practice of hiring smaller core numbers of permanent employees and utilizing temporary employees to fill more highly specialized positions within the organization.
 
STRESS INTERVIEWAn interviewing style whereby the interviewer subjects a candidate to pressure or stress to ascertain how the candidate reacts under such conditions.
 
STRESS MANAGEMENTThe design and implementation of workplace programs and services intended to combat employee stress and improve overall employee morale, effectiveness and productivity.
 
STRIKEOccurs when employees deliberately refuse to perform their jobs and or form picket lines outside the employer premises to prevent or discourage others from working in their place or conducting business with the employer.
 
STRUCTURED INTERVIEWA structured interview asks the same questions of each candidate, so that valid comparisons of the quality of responses can be obtained. The questions generally take four job-related forms situational, observational, personal and behavioral.
 
SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTAn individual who has expertise in a business process or specific area.
 
SUBORDINATE APPRAISALAn appraisal system whereby managerial employees are evaluated by their subordinates.
 
SUBSIDIARYA company having more than half of its stock owned by another company or is completely owned by another company.
 
SUBSTANCE ABUSEDefined as a destructive pattern of substance (i.e., narcotics or alcohol) use leading to clinically significant social, occupational or medical impairment.
 
SUCCESSION PLANNINGThe process of identifying long-range needs and cultivating a supply of internal talent to meet those future needs. Used to anticipate the future needs of the organization and assist in finding, assessing and developing the human capital necessary to the strategy of the organization.
 
SUGGESTION SYSTEMA system allowing employees to voice complaints, make recommendations or submit ideas regarding company policies, procedures, working conditions, benefits, etc.
 
SUMMARY ANNUAL REPORTA summarized report containing information on the financial status of an employee benefit plan.
 
SUMMARY MATERIALA summary of modifications or changes made to an modifications employee benefit plan that is not included in the summary plan description.
 
SUMMARY PLAN DESCRIPTIONA written statement that contains information regarding participation, coverage and employee rights for any ERISA-covered benefit plan.
 
SUMMER HOURSA type of compressed work week scheduling arrangement which allows employees to work longer hours Monday through Thursday and fewer hours on Friday during the summer months.
 
SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENTTraining provided to employees with the potential for promotion into supervisory or managerial-level positions within the organization or as a remedy for performance-related issues.
 
SUPPLEMENTAL UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS (SUB)Typically found in collective bargaining agreements. SUB pay benefits are taxable payments form a fund which can be combined with state unemployment insurance benefits during periods of temporary layoff to provide a higher level of unemployment benefits during the term of layoff.
 
SUPRANATIONALInvolving more than one country or having authority which transcends one country, i.e., the European Union is a supranational organization.
 
SURVEYA data collection method used to assist organizations with problem identification, measuring employee morale or expectations and determining areas of concern.
 
SUSPENSIONA form of disciplinary action resulting in an employee being sent home without pay for a specified period of time (the Fair Labor Standards Act contains stricter rules relating to suspending salaried exempt employees without pay).
 
SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATIONA pattern of discrimination that on the surface appears neutral but in reality is systemic or through its application of policies and practices.
 
TALENT MANAGEMENTBroadly defined as the implementation of an integrated strategies or systems designed to increase workplace productivity by developing improved processes for attracting, developing, retaining and utilizing people with the required skills and aptitude to meet current and future business needs.
 
TANGIBLE REWARDSRewards that can be physically touched or held (i.e., a gift certificate, gifts in the form of merchandise or a savings bond.)
 
TASK COMPETENCIESThe specific activities and tasks that make up a particular job.
 
TEAM BUILDINGA training program designed to assist a group of people to work together as a team while they are learning.
 
TEAMWORKDescribed as the practice of individuals working together in order to bring a variety of talents and experiences to achieve a common goal.
 
TELECOMMUTINGWorking from a remote location (often one home workstation) using computers, telephones, facsimile machines and other remote capabilities, rather than commuting via automobile or other mode of transportation to and from an employer work site to perform equivalent work.
 
TELECONFERENCINGA conference established between two or more people or groups of people who are in different locations; made possible by the use of such telecommunications equipment as closed-circuit television
 
TEMP-TO-PERMThe process of hiring employees on a temporary basis, usually through a temporary staffing agency, with the understanding that if the individual performance meets or exceeds expectations, he or she will be offered a permanent position within the organization.
 
TEMPORARY EMPLOYEEAn individual who works on either short- or long-term assignments with an employer without being treated as a permanent employee and lacking the benefits of permanent employees. Normally utilized by employers to meet seasonal or other demands that they do not have the internal resources to meet.
 
TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDERRestraining and or protective orders are examples of orders issued by a court restraining the conduct of an individual and protecting a victim from the activities of an abusive person.
 
TERMINATIONSeparation from employment due to a voluntary resignation, layoff, retirement or dismissal.
 
TERMINATION DATENormally the last date actually worked by an employee; however, for employers with accrued leave programs, paid leave programs, benefit continuation programs or severance pay programs which go beyond the last day worked, the termination date would be the date at which accruals, paid leave, benefit continuation or severance continuation ceases.
 
TERMINATION-AT-WILLA rule allowing an employee or employer to terminate the employment relationship at any time for any or no reason at all.
 
TEST SECURITYAn individual right to privacy, as it relates to information regarding test results, providing for informed consent of how test results are used.
 
THEORY XStates that some people have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. These people need to be controlled and coerced by their managers to achieve production.
 
THEORY YAssumes that people have a psychological need to work and want achievement and responsibility. A manager role with these people is to help them achieve their potential.
 
THINK TANKA group organized for the purpose of intensive research and problem solving, especially in the areas of technology, social or political strategy, or demographics.
 
THIRD-PARTY SEXUAL HARASSMENTHarassment of an employee by someone other than another employee, such as a client, customer, vendor or service provider.
 
TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964Title VII is a provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that prohibits discrimination in virtually every employment circumstance on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, pregnancy or national origin. In general, Title VII applies to employers with 15 or more employees. The purpose of Title VII protections is to "level the playing field" by forcing employers to consider only objective, job-related criteria in making employment decisions. Title VII must be considered when reviewing applications or resumes, when interviewing candidates, when testing job applicants and when considering employees for promotions, transfers or any other employment-related benefit or condition.
 
TOTAL COMPENSATIONThe complete pay package awarded employees on an annual basis, including all forms of money, benefits, services and in-kind payments.
 
TOTAL REMUNERATIONThe amount of monetary and nonmonetary value to an employee of all the elements in the employment package, as well as any other intrinsic or extrinsic rewards of value to the employee.
 
TRADE SECRETA trade secret consists of any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information used in one business, which gives the business an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it.
 
TRAILING SPOUSEA term used to describe the spouse of an employee who has been transferred or relocated.
 
TRAINING AIDSAny form of audio or visual materials used for training purposes.
 
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTA process dealing primarily with transferring or obtaining knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to carry out a specific activity or task.
 
TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSISA method used to determine what people need to learn and which training programs may be beneficial. The result of the analysis is a training needs report identifying training needs and the interventions needed to reduce key performance gaps.
 
TRANSFERMoving an employee from one position, shift or department to another within the organization.
 
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIPA systematic form of leadership focusing on change and innovation. According to Bernard Bass, it is a form of leadership occurring when leaders “broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and the mission of the group and when they stir their employees to look beyond their own self-interest for the good of the group”
 
TRANSGENDERAn umbrella term for people whose gender identity and or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The term may include, but is not limited to, transsexuals, cross-dressers, and other gender-variant people. Transgender people may identify as female-to-male (FTM) or male-to-female (MTF). They may be heterosexual, lesbian, gay, or bisexual. For example, a man who becomes a woman and is attracted to other women would be identified as a lesbian. Transgender people may or may not decide to alter their bodies hormonally and or surgically.
 
TRANSITIONA complex process altering one birth sex that occurs over a long period of time. Transition includes some or all of the following cultural, legal, and medical adjustments Telling one family, friends and or co-workers; Changing one name and or sex on legal documents; Hormone therapy; and possibly (though not always) some form of surgical alteration.
 
TRANSITIONAL EMPLOYMENTProvides alternative work arrangements, such as temporary light or modified duty, for employees who have been absent from the workplace as a result of illness or injury and who have been released by their medical provider to return to work.
 
TRANSSEXUALAn older term that originated in the medical and psychological communities. Many transgender people prefer the term "transgender" to "transsexual."
 
TREND ANALYSISThe process of forecasting an organization staffing needs by analyzing past employment patterns in order to identify trends that may be expected to continue. The representation of data to show an increasing, decreasing, or unchanging pattern of data over a period of time. A trend analysis is often performed by creating a line graph from a set of data.
 
TUITION ASSISTANCEA program designed to provide financial assistance to employees taking educational courses at an accredited college or university.
 
TURKEY TROTA term used to describe the practice of transferring problem or performance-challenged employees from one position or department to another with the expectation that the employee may improve under a new supervisor or in a different work atmosphere.
 
TURNOVER COSTSCosts associated with a separation of employment, including items such as unemployment compensation, COBRA benefits continuation costs, the cost of conducting exit interviews, as well as costs associated with replacing an employee, such as advertising, preemployment testing, time and materials for new hire orientation, training and lost productivity.
 
TURNOVER RATEThe number of separations during a month, including both voluntary and involuntary terminations (excluding layoffs). The turnover rate is calculated by taking the number of separations during a month divided by the average number of employees on the payroll multiplied by 100.
 
UNDERUTILIZATIONAs part of the affirmative action process, this report is used to determine whether certain members of protected groups are being inadequately represented within the workforce. The report uses information based on the geographic area and positions within the organization.
 
UNDUE HARDSHIPFor an employer to legally refuse to accommodate an applicant or an employee disability or religious beliefs, the employer must be able to show that such an accommodation would place a severe burden on the operation of the business.
 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE (UI)A statutory benefit. Unemployment insurance is designed to provide workers who have been laid off a weekly income during short periods of unemployment. The system is run and funded by state and federal taxes paid by employers.
 
UNEMPLOYMENT RATEThe number of individuals unemployed as a percentage of the labor force.
 
UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE (ULP)An unfair labor practice (ULP) is a violation of a right protected by the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute. The ULP procedures provided by the Statute are part of the basic mechanisms by which the parties are protected in the exercise of their rights.
 
UNFAIRLY DISCRIMINATORYAn action or policy resulting in members of protected groups becoming disadvantaged in relation to the employer selection, hiring, promotion, pay and training opportunities, when said person(s) are as equally qualified and have the same potential to be successful.
 
UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURESThe Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures of 1978 address the use of interviewing, testing, training and other employee selection tools and their impact on discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Specifically addressed is adverse impact, measured by the 80% test, which states that if a selection practice yields less than 80% of a protected group, as compared with the most frequently selected group, there may be evidence of discrimination. The guidelines also require employers to maintain records, for an unspecified period of time, on their selection procedures and any adverse impact noted, as well as records of the employer workforce broken down by race and ethnic groups.
 
UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTSThe Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 (USERRA, or the Act), signed into law on October 13, 1994, clarifies and strengthens the Veterans’ Reemployment Rights (VRR) Statute. USERRA is intended to minimize the disadvantages to an individual that can occur when that person needs to be absent from his or her civilian employment in order to serve in the uniformed services. USERRA makes major improvements in protecting service member rights and benefits by clarifying the law and improving enforcement mechanisms. USERRA expands the cumulative length of time that an individual may be absent from work for uniformed services duty and retain reemployment rights.
 
UNIONA formal organization certified by the National Labor Relations Board and authorized to act on behalf of employees regarding wages, benefits, working conditions, conditions of employment and job security.
 
UNION SHOPA form of union security that requires employees to join the union, within a certain time after they are hired or after a compulsory union ism contract is executed, and to maintain their membership as a condition of employment.
 
UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT PRACTICEAny policy or practice that has discriminatory intent or effect and cannot be shown to be essential to the successful performance of the job in question.
 
UNRETIREMENTThe practice of hiring retired former employees whose skills or qualifications are in need.
 
UNSAFE ACTSAny action, such as horseplay, fighting, failing to abide by a safety rule, etc., that results in accident or injury to another.
 
UNSAFE CONDITIONSHazards, such as faulty equipment or tools, improper safety procedures, failure to improperly guard equipment, etc., that result or have the potential to result in an accident or injury to another.
 
UNSKILLED WORKERSomeone who is not required to use reasoning in their work Examples packager, assembler, laborer, hand, apprentice
 
UNWELCOME BEHAVIOR CONDUCTConduct or behavior by peers, subordinates or supervisors that is objectionable or unacceptable to an individual.
 
UPWARD MOBILITYThe process of preparing minorities for promotion into higher-level jobs, such as managerial positions.
 
UTILIZATION MANAGEMENTReview and analysis of health care programs to determine cost control methods. Involves reviewing claims for potential utilization problems.
 
V-TIMEAn alternative work schedule that allows employees to voluntarily agree to reduce their work time and pay.
 
VACATION BUY-BACK PLANA program that allows an employee to sell back to the employer any unused vacation time balances.
 
VACATION BUYING SELLING TRADINGA program that allows employees to buy additional vacation time from another employee or sell additional time they may have available to another employee. Some programs also allow for trading of future vacation time.
 
VACATION CARRYOVERA policy allowing employees to transfer a portion of their current year vacation balances for use in the next year. The amount of time that can be carried over is based on the employer policy.
 
VALIDATIONThe study of an employer test or selection standards that proves that they are significant predictors of successful job performance (those who score high turn out to be successful on a job and those who score low turn out to be unsuccessful). The study requires a large sample of applicants and must include representatives of groups--such as minorities and women--who may be suffering adversely from such standards.
 
VALIDITYThe general concept of validity is traditionally defined as "the degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring." Validity is normally subdivided into three categories content, criterion related and construct validity. Validity is an essential characteristic for all tests and test ratings.
 
VALUE STATEMENTA document outlining and representing the core priorities in the organization culture.
 
VALUE-ADDED WORKWork that increases the value of a service or product to the employer customers.
 
VARIANCE FORECASTINGA measure that utilizes a demand and availability forecast to determine whether an organization has the ability to meet future manpower needs.
 
VERTICAL DISINTEGRATIONUsed to describe organizations that over time shed layer after layer of full-time permanent employees and replace them with temporary workers until their workforce primarily consists of temporary employees.
 
VERTICAL MANAGEMENTA traditional organizational structure consisting of primary functions (i.e., engineering, manufacturing, finance, etc.), with each function having its own manager.
 
VERTICAL ORGANIZATIONAn organizational structure consisting of many layers of management or other positions of authority.
 
VESTIBULE TRAININGA form of training conducted outside of the workplace to acclimate newly hired employees with procedures and equipment or tools to be used in their jobs.
 
VESTINGAn employee right to receive present or future pension benefits, even if the employee does not remain in the service of the employer.
 
VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACTThis statute extended the affirmative action and reporting responsibilities of federal contractors and subcontractors, which previously protected veterans of the Vietnam era and special disabled veterans, to include any other U. S. veteran who served on active duty during a war or in a campaign or expedition for which a campaign badge was authorized. It also raised the reporting threshold from $10,000 to $25,000 and added the requirement to report the maximum and minimum number of persons employed on the VETS-100 report.
 
VIRTUAL HRThe use of technology to provide HR programs via an employee self-service platform. Typically includes use of such items as voice response systems, employee kiosks, etc.
 
VIRTUAL MENTORINGA form of mentoring whereby the mentor and mentored communicate from a distance, utilizing either e-mail or other forms of electronic conferencing.
 
VIRTUAL OFFICE WORKPLACEThe work site of employees such as sales reps or other types of employees who work off company premises and communicate with their respective workplaces via telephone or computer.
 
VISION STATEMENTA vision statement is a description of what an organization wants to become or hopes to accomplish in the future (typically in the next 10 years).
 
VOLUNTARY LEAVE LAYOFFLeave without pay that is taken on a voluntary basis by employees for specified duration. Often used as an alternative to layoff.
 
VOLUNTARY REDUCTION IN HOURSAllows employees to voluntarily reduce their working hours as well as their pay for a specified duration. Also used as an alternative to layoff.
 
VOLUNTEERISMOrganizational support, often in the form of paid leave or sponsorship, for employees pursuing volunteer opportunities or performing community services.
 
WAGE AND SALARY ADMINISTRATIONProcedures used for planning and administering organization-wide compensation programs for all levels of employees.
 
WAGE AND SALARY SURVEYA benchmark report consisting of market pay data for a variety of jobs conducted either on a local or nationwide basis. Used to evaluate an organization own current pay structures and as a future compensation planning tool.
 
WAGE CURVEDepicts pay rates currently being paid for each job within a pay grade in relation with the rankings awarded to each job during the job evaluation process.
 
WAGE DIFFERENTIALDifferences in wage rates for similar jobs occurring either due to the location of company, hours of work, working conditions, type of product manufactured or other circumstances.
 
WAGE GAPThe difference in pay between female employees and male employees who are performing the same or comparable jobs.
 
WAGE GARNISHMENTUsually in the form of a court order, a garnishment requires withholding a portion of an employee earnings for repayment of a debt.
 
WAGE STRUCTUREDepicts the range of pay rates to be paid for each grade for various positions within the organization.
 
WAIVERA document signed by either an employee or prospective employee in which he or she renounces certain specified rights or considerations.
 
WEINGARTEN RULEThe U.S. Supreme Court upheld a decision by the Labor Board that employees have a right, protected by Section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act, to insist upon union representation during an investigatory interview by the employer, provided the employee "reasonably believes" the interview "might result in disciplinary action." This right arises from Section 7 "guarantee of the right of employees to act in concert for mutual aid and protection." The right applies to unionized employees and is limited to situations where the employee specifically requests representation. The employer is not legally required to advise the employee of this right, and it applies only to investigatory meetings.
 
WELFARE PLANA plan designed to provide employees with coverage for medical or hospital care and surgical procedures. May also include other benefits, such as vacation or scholarship programs.
 
WELL CHILD CAREHealth care benefits that provide payment for routine office visits and physical examinations, immunizations and laboratory tests for dependent children.
 
WELLNESS PROGRAMPrograms, such as on-site or subsidized fitness centers, health screenings, smoking cessation, weight reduction management, health awareness and education, that target keeping employees healthy, thereby lowering employer’s costs associated with absenteeism, lost productivity and increased health insurance claims.
 
WHITE COLLAR EMPLOYEESEmployees who are paid on a salaried basis and whose jobs do not require the performance of work of a manual nature. Such individuals are normally employed in the capacity of managers, supervisors, salespeople, clerical or technical workers and meet the criteria of the FLSA white collar exemption test.
 
WILLFUL MISCONDUCTWillful misconduct is defined as any action, taken by an employee consciously and willfully, that is deliberately malicious or violates a company policy. Willful misconduct can include such things as willful or deliberate behavior inconsistent with the continuation of employment; conduct causing imminent and serious risk to a person’s health, safety, reputation or the viability or profitability of the employer’s business; theft, assault or fraud; being under the influence of drugs or alcohol at work; or refusing to carry out a lawful and reasonable instruction consistent with an employment policy.
 
WOMEN-OWNED BUSINESS ENTERPRISEA woman-owned business is a for-profit enterprise, regardless of size, located in the United States or its trust territories, that is owned, operated and controlled by women. Ownership by women means the business is at least 51% owned by such individuals or, in the case of publicly owned business, at least 51% of the stock is owned by one or more such individuals. Further, women control the management and daily operations.
 
WORK AND FAMILY PROGRAMSWork programs and benefits, such as adoption benefits, dependent care assistance, leave programs, flextime, compressed workweeks, telecommuting, etc., implemented to provide employees with greater flexibility to meet both work and family demands.
 
WORK HARDENINGA program, typically lasting four to six weeks, that provides workers who were injured on the job and who have undergone physical or occupational therapy the strength to be able to resume normal work functions and therefore getting them back to work.
 
WORK LIFE BALANCEHaving a measure of control over when, where and how individuals work, leading to their being able to enjoy an optimal quality of life. Work life balance is achieved when an individual right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society.
 
WORK SAMPLINGThe measurement of how employees spend their time and the number of work units being produced by employees over a specific period of time. This is accomplished by randomly observing employees while they are performing their jobs and then using mathematical formulas to determine the sample size.
 
WORK SIMPLIFICATIONThe process of making a job easier and simpler to perform. Involves analyzing various job tasks by compiling work process, work flow and work distribution charts. The information is then reviewed, and new methods are introduced and tested to determine the most suitable and efficient method to be implemented.
 
WORK STOPPAGEA work stoppage occurs when employees cease to perform their jobs as a means of showing their support for a specific cause or as a way of voicing a grievance.
 
WORKER COMPENSATIONState laws enacted to provide workers with protection and income replacement benefits due to an illness or injury suffered on the job. Employers must carry appropriate worker compensation insurance, as required by state law, or have a sufficient source of funding for claims incurred.
 
WORKFORCE ANALYSISA listing of each job title as the title appears in applicable collective bargaining agreements or payroll records ranked from the lowest paid to the highest paid within each department including department or unit supervision. For each job title, the following information must be given the total number of male and female employees; the total number of male and female employees who are Black (not Hispanic), Hispanic, American Indian Alaskan Native and Asian Pacific Islander; and the wage rate or salary range.
 
WORKFORCE PLANNINGThe assessment of current workforce content and composition issues used to determine what actions must be taken to respond to future needs.
 
WORKPLACE BULLYINGPersistent, offensive, abusive, intimidating or insulting behavior or unfair actions directed at another individual, causing the recipient to feel threatened, abused, humiliated or vulnerable.
 
WORKPLACE FLEXIBILITYDefines workplaces who provide employees with flexibility in matters such as scheduling of hours worked, as well as providing the ability to address unanticipated family and personal needs as they arise.
 
WORKPLACE VIOLENCEAssaults and other violent acts or threats that occur in or are related to the workplace and entail a substantial risk of physical or emotional harm to individuals or damage to company resources or capabilities.
 
WRITTEN WARNINGWritten documentation given to an employee describing specific disciplinary infractions, such as inappropriate conduct, poor performance or violation of work rules policies. Such documentation normally includes information regarding past infractions and what action will be taken if employee fails to improve.
 
WRONGFUL DISCHARGEAn exception to the at-will employment doctrine, wrongful discharge termination is the unjust or unfair termination of an employee based on breach of a written or oral implied contract or a violation of public policy.
 
YELLOW DOG CONTRACTAn employment contract or agreement, either oral or in writing, that forbids employees from joining or continuing membership in any labor union as a condition for continuing or obtaining employment.
 
ZERO-BASED BONUSA plan design feature that establishes a preassigned class, ratio, or ranking for a specified class of employees who will receive zero bonus awards.
 
ZERO-BASED BUDGETINGA budgeting system that starts with no authorized funds as a starting point. In a zerobased budget, each activity or program to be funded must be justified every time a new budget is prepared and resources are allocated accordingly.
 
 
MGT
ACCEPTANCE RATEThe number of new users who have begun using any method of contraception, measured among a designated population (community, district, program area), covering a specific period of time (month, quarter, or year). An acceptance rate can be measured for all methods or for a single, specific method. For example, in a clinic, the acceptance rate for oral contraceptives measured over the three-month period (January through March) could be expressed as 100 per 1000 clients, or 10 percent of visiting clients accepted an initial supply of oral contraceptives—a 10 percent acceptance rate during the first quarter of that year.
 
ACCOUNTING SYSTEMA system for collecting, recording, processing, and reporting all financially related transactions. Two common systems are cash accounting and accrual accounting.
 
ACCRUAL ACCOUNTINGAn accounting system that records revenue when it is earned, expenses when they are incurred, and costs of using fixed assets such as buildings or equipment (as opposed to Cash Accounting).
 
ACTION PLANDeveloped by a manager and his or her staff, an action plan lists program goals and objectives, and activities that will be implemented in order to achieve the objectives. An action plan often covers a time period of a year, indicates the person(s) responsible for implementing each activity, shows when each activity is due to be completed, and indicates the financial resources required. (See also Operational Plan.)
 
ACTIVATIONThe implementation of business continuity procedures, activities and plans in response to a serious Incident, Emergency, Event or Crisis.
 
ACTIVITYA process or set of processes undertaken by an organization (or on its behalf) that produces or supports one or more products or services.
 
ACTIVITY PLANNINGThe process of defining activities, planning the sequence of those activities, and identifying the resources (human, financial, and material) that will be used to carry out those activities to achieve the desired results.
 
ADVISORY BOARDA group of external, experienced professionals who are charged with the responsibility of advising the senior management of an organization or program. An advisory board is usually structured more informally than a board of directors but may have similar responsibilities, such as helping senior management to formulate the organizational mission and policies, defining strategic directions, and providing general oversight of the financial health of the organization or program.
 
ALARP (OF RISK)A level as low as reasonably practical
 
ALERTA formal notification that an incident has occurred which might develop into a Business Continuity Management or Crisis Management invocation.
 
ALTERNATE ROUTINGThe routing of information via an alternate cable or other medium (i.e. using different networks should the normal network be rendered unavailable).
 
ALTERNATE SITEA site held in readiness for use during a Business Continuity invocation to continue the urgent and important processes of an organization. The term applies equally to office or technology requirements.
 
APPOINTMENT CARDA card provided to the family planning client showing the date and time of her next scheduled visit to the clinic, the address (and telephone number, if available) of the clinic, and often the name of a contact person. Using an appointment system helps clients remember when to return for a follow-up visit, helps the clinic staff to plan and provide services more efficiently, and can help to reduce the time a client spends waiting for services.
 
AS NZ 5050A standard for Business Continuity based upon Risk Management principles produced by the Australian and New Zealand standards bodies.
 
ASISAmerican Society for Industrial Security. Developers of US national standards for ANSI in BCM and Operational Resilience.
 
ASIS BSI BCM.01-2010A US National Standard for Business Continuity Management.
 
ASSEMBLY POINT AREAThe designated area at which employees, visitors and contractors assemble if evacuated from their building site.
 
ASSESSMENTSStudies used for analyzing a present situation against an ideal situation, identifying areas for improvement, or learning more about the situation in order to define a course of action. (See also Situation Analysis.)
 
ASSETAnything that has value to the organization.
 
ASSURANCEThe activity and process whereby an organization can verify and validate its BCM capability.
 
ATOFRecovery at time of failure
 
ATOPRecovery at time of peak
 
AUDITORA person with competence to conduct an audit. For a BCM Audit this would normally require a person with formal BCM audit qualifications.
 
AVERAGE LEAD TIMEThe average length of time between placing an order for contraceptives or commodities and receiving the supplies ordered.
 
AVERAGE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION (AMC)The average number of units of a specific type or brand of contraceptive that are dispensed in a month. The average is usually based on quantities that have been dispensed over a period of six months.
 
AWARENESSTo create understanding of basic BCM issues and limitations. This will enable staff to recognise threats and respond accordingly. Examples of creating such awareness include distribution of posters and flyers targeted at company-wide audience or conducting specific business continuity briefings for executive management of the organization. Awareness is less formal than training and is generally targeted at all staff in the organization
 
BACKLOGThe effect on the business of a build-up of work that occurs as the result of a system or process being unavailable for an unacceptable period. A situation whereby a backlog of work requires more time to action than is available through normal working patterns.
 
BACKUPA process by which data, electronic or paper based is copied in some form so as to be available and used if the original data from which it originated is lost, destroyed or corrupted.
 
BALANCE SHEETThe financial report that summarizes the value of the assets, liabilities, and reserves of an organization at a specific point in time.
 
BAR CHARTA graph that represents data or sets of data in vertical or horizontal bars so that the relationship between the data can be seen and interpreted more easily. Bar charts can be used to analyze most types of service data and help to show the differences between several different categories of data such as number of contraceptive users, non-users, and discontinuers.
 
BARRIERS TO SERVICESNational or local governmental laws or policies, professional practices and procedures, administrative regulations, or other official or unofficial rules that block people from receiving services because of age, gender, marital status, parity, financial ability, residence, etc.
 
BASEL COMMITTEE – BCM PRINCIPLESThe “High-Level Principles for Business Continuity” of the Joint Forum Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (published by Bank for International Settlements, August 2006.
 
BASELINE SURVEYA survey that is conducted at the start of a project to determine the level of key indicators against which future results are compared.
 
BATTLE BOXA container - often literally a box or brief case - in which data and information is stored so as to be immediately available post incident.
 
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATIONA conscious attempt to change or eliminate an individuals undesirable behavior by specifying expected behavior and reinforcing and rewarding desired behavior.
 
BENCHMARKSEstablished objectives or criteria that must be achieved over a specific period of time. Benchmarks are often set as incentives for a program to reach its short-term objectives which, when reached, qualify the program to receive additional funding or other forms of program support.
 
BIN CARDSee Stock Card.
 
BLUE LIGHT SERVICESThis is an informal term which refers to the emergency services of Police, Fire and Ambulance.
 
BOARD OF DIRECTORSOften a legal requirement for a nonprofit or for-profit organization, a board of directors is generally composed of a group of professionals with diverse skills and experience and is charged with the responsibility of overseeing the stability of the organization. Because board members are not employees of the organization and their membership is generally voluntary, boards can effectively and objectively guide an organization since no financial gain is involved. Areas of responsibility include developing a strategic plan, supporting the leadership and growth of the organization, providing financial oversight, maintaining community and government relations, ensuring that high-quality services are provided, and managing its own board activities.
 
BRAINSTORMINGA group activity which allows people to quickly generate ideas, raise questions, and propose solutions on issues.
 
BRONZE CONTROLThis is used by UK Emergency Services to designate Operational Control.
 
BS 25999The British Standards Institution standard for Business Continuity Management.
 
BSIBritish Standards Institution, the UK national standards body and UK representatives to ISO.
 
BUILDING DENIALA situation in which premises cannot, or are not allowed to be, accessed.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY (BC)The strategic and tactical capability of the organization to plan for and respond to incidents and business disruptions in order to continue business operations at an acceptable predefined level.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY COORDINATORA Business Continuity Management professional who has the overall responsibility for co-coordination of the overall BCM planning programmes including team member training, testing and maintenance of recovery plans.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY INSTITUTE (BCI)The Institute of professional Business Continuity Managers. Website www.thebci.org.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT (BCM)A holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business operations that those threats—if realized—might cause, and which provides a framework for building organizational resilience with the capability for an effective response that safeguards the interests of its key stakeholders, reputation, brand, and value-creating activities.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT (BCM) LIFECYCLEA series of business continuity activities which collectively cover all aspects and phases of the BCM program. BCI use the same life-cycle model as BS25999.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMEOngoing management and governance process supported by top management and appropriately resourced to ensure that the necessary steps are taken to identify the impact of potential losses, maintain viable recovery strategies and plans, and ensure continuity of products and services through training, exercising, maintenance and review.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (BCMS)Part of the overall management system that implements, operates, monitors, reviews, maintains, and improves business continuity.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY MATURITY MODEL (BCMM)A tool to measure the level and degree to which BCM activities have become standard and assured business practices within an organization.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN (BCP)A documented collection of procedures and information that is developed, compiled, and maintained in readiness for use in an incident to enable an organization to continue to deliver its critical products and services at an acceptable predefined level.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANNINGBusiness Continuity Planning is the process of developing prior arrangements and procedures that enable an organization to respond to an event in such a manner that critical business functions can continue within planned levels of disruption. The end result of the planning process is the BC Plan. Broadly defined as a management process that seeks to identify potential threats and impacts to the organization and provide a strategic and operational framework for ensuring the organization is able to withstand any disruption, interruption or loss to normal business functions or operation.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY POLICY STATEMENTA BCM policy sets out an organization’s aims, principles and approach to BCM, what and how it will be delivered, key roles and responsibilities and how BCM will be governed and reported upon.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY PROGRAMME BOARDA management group to give advice, guidance and management authorization to the BC Manager.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY STEERING COMMITTEEA top management group to give direction, advice, guidance and financial approval for the BCM programmes undertaken by the BCM Manager and various BC Coordinators.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY STRATEGYA strategic approach by an organization to ensure its recovery and continuity in the face of a disaster or other major incidents or business disruptions.
 
BUSINESS CONTINUITY TEAM (BCT)The strategic, tactical and operational teams that would respond to an incident, and who should contribute significantly to the writing and testing of the BC Plans.
 
BUSINESS FUNCTIONA description of work that is performed to accomplish the specific business requirements of the organization. Examples of business function include delivering raw materials, paying bills, receiving cash and inventory control.
 
BUSINESS IMPACT ANALYSIS (BIA)The process of analyzing business functions and the effect that a business disruption might have upon them.
 
BUSINESS PLANOften developed for the purposes of finding funding for a program or project, a business plan details the goals, activities, income sources, other financial resources, and expected revenue that will be generated from the business or activities. A document that provides relevant information about a company by outlining items such as the company’s business description, market or industry, management, competitors, future prospects and growth potential, etc.
 
BUSINESS RISKRisk that internal and external factors, such as inability to provide a service or product, or a fall in demand for an organizations products or services will result in an unexpected loss.
 
BUSINESS UNITA business unit within an organization e.g. branch division.
 
BUSINESS UNIT BCM COORDINATORA staff member appointed by a business unit to serve as the liaison person responsible for all BCM direction and activities within the unit.
 
C.A.R.Capability Assessment for Readiness. This is the process of self-assessment under the US Standard NFPA 1600.
 
CALL TREEA structured cascade process that enables a list of persons, roles and or organizations to be contacted as a part of information exchange or plan invocation procedure.
 
CALL TREE TESTA test designed to validate the currency of contact lists and the processes by which they are maintained.
 
CAMPUSA set of buildings which are geographically grouped together and might form one inter-connected set of Business Continuity Plans.
 
CAPITAL COSTSCosts of acquiring, constructing, or renovating fixed assets such as land, buildings, and large equipment (as opposed to Operating Costs).
 
CASCADE SYSTEMA system whereby one person or organization calls out contacts others who in turn initiate further call-outs contacts as necessary.
 
CASH ACCOUNTINGAn accounting system that records revenue when it is received and expenses when they are paid (as opposed to Accrual Accounting).
 
CASH FLOW PROJECTION WORKSHEETCash Flow Forecast A monthly projection of cash receipts and disbursements used to identify potential excess and shortages of cash funds.
 
CASUALTY BUREAUThe central police controlled contact and information point for all records and data relating to casualties and fatalities.
 
CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAMA tool often used in a continuous quality improvement program to group people ideas about the causes of a particular problem in an orderly way. This tool is also known as a "fishbone" diagram because of the shape that it takes when illustrating the primary and secondary causes of a problem.
 
CHRONOGRAMAlso known as a Gantt Chart or Project Activity Timeline A project planning tool that summarizes the major project activities listed in chronological sequence. It shows the month or quarter that each activity will be completed and the person or persons responsible for carrying out each activity. It helps managers to monitor activities and short-term results, keep a project on schedule, and manage project resources.
 
CIVIL EMERGENCYEvent or situation which threatens serious damage to human welfare in a place, environment or a place or the security of that place.
 
CLIENT CHARACTERISTICSInformation about client traits and needs that is used for analyzing a program client base in order to provide high-quality client care based on client needs. Client characteristics include age, marital status, number of pregnancies, presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), literacy, preference for spacing births or ending reproduction, etc.
 
CLIENT CLINIC DATASummary information about the clients served by a clinic or community-based program. Types of clinic client data typically include types of contraceptive methods used by a program clients (method mix), number of continuing users served by a clinic or program per month or year, number of new acceptors of a contraceptive method in a clinic or program, number of discontinuers of a method or clients who have dropped out of the program, and summary information on average age, marital status, and number of children of the clients.
 
CLIENT FEESCharges made to a client as payment for services provided to him or her, such as the provision of contraceptive supplies, counseling, clinical or laboratory services, and others. Client fees include registration fees collected at each visit, service fees collected for individual services provided, and membership fees collected on a yearly basis. Many programs charge clients a small fee to help cover some of the cost of providing services and to encourage clients to place a value on the services provided.
 
CLIENT FLOW ANALYSISAlso known as Patient Flow Analysis The process of determining the efficiency of service delivery operations in a health facility. It is based on observations made of the movement of clients through the health facility and tracks, in particular, the amount of time a client spends waiting to be seen by a provider and the amount of contact time a client has with each of the clinic service providers.
 
CLIENT FLOW CHARTThe chart that summarizes the information obtained from the client flow form. It shows the total time spent in the clinic, including time spent waiting and time spent with staff, as well as the percentage of the total time in the clinic that clients spent waiting for services.
 
CLIENT FLOW FORMThe form used to record the information needed to perform a client flow analysis. The form records the client number, family planning method, type of visit, clinic arrival time, and the time and duration of each contact with staff.
 
CLIENT MOTIVATIONInformation, education, discussion, or promotional activities that serve to encourage a client or potential client to use, or continue to use, contraceptives and reproductive health services on a regular basis.
 
CLIENT PROFILEA representation in numbers and or percentages of the main characteristics of a program clients. A client profile allows managers to gain a better understanding of the types of clients the program serves and (in some cases) the high-priority needs of those clients, so that the program can better serve its clients and potentially attract new clients who have similar needs.
 
CLIENT RECORDAlso known as Medical Record The file or form completed for each client containing information on the client medical and family planning history, health status, and physical exams. The file should include (at a minimum) the name, address, sex, age, parity, reproductive health history, and contraceptive method used by the client. The file is kept at the clinic and is updated by the staff each time a client returns for services.
 
CLIENT REFERRAL CARDA card given to a client or potential client by a community-based agent, outreach worker, or clinic provider that refers the client to another service facility for specific services that are not provided by the issuing agent or clinic. The referral card provides the name and location of the facility to which the client is being sent, the program or clinic making the referral, the name of the client being referred, and the reason for referral.
 
CLIENT SATISFACTIONThe benefits or value of the services (as perceived by the clients) provided by a program or clinic, often measured in terms of the quality of interpersonal interaction with providers, the range of contraceptive choice, and the efficiency and responsiveness to individual client needs.
 
CLIENT SURVEYA survey, often conducted through interviews, used to determine what clients needs are, whether their needs are being met, what their perceptions are of the quality of care, their ability to pay for services, and other characteristics of a given client population.
 
CLIENT WAITING TIMEThe time clients spend waiting to be seen by providers in a clinic. (See Client Flow Analysis)
 
CLINIC MANAGEMENTAll aspects of managing a clinic effectively, including planning activities and services, organizing the clinic space and work process for serving clients, managing financial and programmatic resources (including clinic and contraceptive supplies), managing information, monitoring progress toward objectives, and supervising clinical and non-clinical staff.
 
CLINIC PERFORMANCEClinic performance is often measured by counting the number of clients served by the clinic, and or the number of new acceptors and continuing users served by the clinic over a specific period of time, and is evaluated relative to objectives set for the clinic.
 
CLINIC PROTOCOLThe list of medical standards that staff are expected to follow, which describes in detail the medical procedures and quality of care standards that ensure the safety and health of family planning clients.
 
CLUSTER SURVEYA population-based survey technique that allows managers and evaluators to survey small population groupings and use the results to represent a larger portion of the overall population, thereby providing more rapid feedback on the impact of program activities. Stratified sampling techniques, by which the population is divided into different categories that are of interest to the program (such as age, parity, residence, and education), can be used in cluster surveys to improve the accuracy of the results.
 
COGContinuance of Government. This is a US concept for how government entities plan to continue the key elements of public governance in emergency situations.
 
COLD CHAIN MAINTENANCEThe management of a system of freezers, refrigerators, dry ice carriers, and other devices used for maintaining the proper temperature for vaccines from the point of manufacture to the point of administration.
 
COLD SITEA site (data centre work area) equipped with appropriate environmental conditioning, electrical connectivity, communications access, configurable space and access to accommodate the installation and operation of equipment by key employees required to resume business operations.
 
COMMAND CENTRE (CC)The facility used by a Crisis Management Team after the first phase of a plan invocation. An organization must have a primary and secondary location for a command centre in the event of one being unavailable. It may also serve as a reporting point for deliveries, services, press and all external contacts.
 
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATIONA critical component of family planning programs, community participation can take many forms; it occurs when members of the community and local government play a significant role in managing the local family planning program and contributing money or materials, or volunteer time, thus deriving a sense of ownership of the program and accepting responsibility for achieving stated objectives.
 
COMMUNITY SURVEYA survey of a community that is the focus of a new program or an existing family planning program. In a community survey, interviewers researchers often collect information on current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding contraception. Additional information can be collected as appropriate on the perception of a program services (whether or not the respondents use those services), their source of services, income, and other socio-economic indicators that will help managers plan or improve the program.
 
COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICES (CBS)Health and family planning information and services provided to women and couples where they live or through locally-based depot holders. Services are organized through community-based activities where outreach workers, from a local clinic or the community, provide selected contraceptives (usually pills and condoms) to clients, follow up with clients who have questions, complaints, or side-effects, and make referrals to area clinics as appropriate.
 
COMPARISON TABLESee Matrix.
 
COMPLIANCEFulfilment of a requirement in a Management Systems context.
 
CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATIONConfidential information means any information or material known to or used by (whether owned, created, or developed by any party) that is not generally known or available to the public. Confidential Information includes trade secrets; information marked as confidential or has otherwise described (either in writing or orally) as confidential information pertaining to clients, business associates, or contractors concerning but not limited to products, services, prospective products or services, research, product designs, prices, discounts, costs, marketing plans, marketing techniques, market studies, test data, clients, client lists and records, suppliers and contracts, business records and plans, personnel files, financial information, information relating to operating-system software, application software, software and system methodology, hardware platforms, technical information, inventions, ideas, computer programs and listings, source codes, object codes, copyrights and other intellectual property, technical specifications, proprietary information, computer hardware or software manuals, training or instructions manuals, and data and computer-system passwords and user codes.
 
CONFORMITYFulfilment of a requirement of a management system.
 
CONSEQUENCEEvaluated outcome of an event or a particular set of circumstances.
 
CONSOLIDATION STAGEThe third stage of organizational development during which the organization focuses on developing and refining its systems to increase management effectiveness, including its internal abilities to mobilize and control resources for organizational and program sustainability. (See Stages of Organizational Development.)
 
CONTACT LISTThe contact data used by Call Tree and Cascade processes and systems.
 
CONTACT TIMEThe amount of time that a client spends with clinic staff during a visit to a service facility. This is one of the elements that is analyzed in a Client Flow Analysis.
 
CONTINGENCY FUNDA budget for meeting and managing operating expense at the time of a Business Continuity invocation.
 
CONTINGENCY PLANA plan to deal with specific set of adverse circumstances.
 
CONTINUATION RATEThe number of users who continue to use any method of contraception, measured among a designated population (community, district, program area), covering a specific period of time (month, quarter, or year). A continuation rate can also be measured for one specific method.
 
CONTINUING USERS(also known as Active Users) Continuing users are contraceptive users who are practicing family planning on a given date. They are usually counted and reported on separately from new clients of a program and new users of a method.
 
CONTINUITY REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS (CRA)The process to collect information on the resources required to resume and continue the business activities at a level required to support the organization’s objectives and obligations.
 
CONTINUOUS (PERPETUAL) REVIEW SYSTEM(also known as Variable Order Interval System)A system of inventory control and resupply whereby stock levels are constantly reviewed and orders are placed when the stock reaches or falls below the predetermined reorder level. In this system, the reorders are usually for standard quantities but do not occur on a scheduled basis.
 
CONTINUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT (CQI)A structured, cyclical process for improving systems and processes in an organization or program. It involves identifying an area where there is an opportunity for improvement, defining a problem within this area, outlining the sequence of activities (the process) that occurs in this area, establishing the desired outcomes of the process and the requirements needed to achieve them, selecting specific steps in the process to study, collecting and analyzing data about the process, taking corrective action, and monitoring the results of those actions. CQI is based on a team approach, and requires developing teams composed of staff from different functional areas and levels in the organization. It assumes that any system can always be improved and therefore emphasizes a process of constant improvement, which requires long-term organizational commitment and effective teamwork.
 
CONTRACEPTIVE DATA ANALYSIS CHARTA worksheet used (for each method of contraception) to track the stock on hand and the amount of supplies ordered, received, and dispensed on a monthly basis. This worksheet helps managers to monitor changes in the quantities of stock on a month-by-month basis and provides a summary of the stock transactions over a one-year period.
 
CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCEThe percentage of all women of reproductive age (WRA) or married women of reproductive age (MWRA), typically age 15 to 49, who are using a method of contraception. Contraceptive prevalence usually refers to the use of all methods, but may be given separately for modern methods (pills, IUDs, implants, injectables, condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and voluntary sterilization). It is calculated by dividing the number of WRA or MWRA who are using a method (numerator) by the total number of WRA or MWRA (denominator).
 
CONTRACEPTIVE PRODUCT COSTUsed when determining the cost of services, the contraceptive product cost is the unit cost of a contraceptive product. If contraceptives are donated, then the contraceptive product cost will need to be estimated. The cost normally includes any expenditure on international and local transportation, customs, and taxes.
 
CONTRACEPTIVE SUPPLY MANAGEMENT(also known as Logistics Management) The management of all aspects of the supply cycle product selection, forecasting, procurement, storage and inventory management, distribution, and use, so that a supply of unexpired contraceptives is available to clients in sufficient quantities when they need them.
 
CONTROLThe whole system of controls, financial and otherwise, established by a Board and management in order to carry on an organization business in an effective and efficient manner, in line with the organization established objectives and goals. Also there to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, to safeguard an organization assets and to ensure the reliability of management and financial information. Also referred to as Internal Control.
 
CONTROL FRAMEWORKA model or recognised system of control categories that covers all internal controls expected within an organization.
 
CONTROL REVIEW MONITORINGInvolves selecting a control and establishing whether it has been working effectively and as described and expected during the period under review.
 
CONTROL SELF ASSESSMENT (CSA)A class of techniques used in an audit or in place of an audit to assess risk and control strength and weaknesses against a control framework. The ‘self’ assessment refers to the involvement of management and staff in the assessment process, often facilitated by internal auditors. CSA techniques can include workshop seminars, focus groups, structured interviews and survey questionnaires.
 
CONTROL SYSTEMSAll procedures and rules that guard against corruption, theft, and inappropriate utilization of funds or other resources.
 
COOPContinuance of Operations Planning.
 
COORDINATIONThe planned collaboration of the different individuals, departments, and organizations concerned with achieving a common goal.
 
COPE (CLIENT-ORIENTED, PROVIDER EFFICIENT)This is a low-technology technique to improve services for clients. COPE enables local service delivery teams to assess their own work in order to identify and find solutions to problems in their facility.
 
CORDON (INNER AND OUTER)The boundary line of a zone that is determined, reinforced by legislative power, and exclusively controlled by the emergency services from which all unauthorised persons are excluded for a period of time determined by the emergency services.
 
CORPORATE GOVERNANCEThe system process by which the directors and officers of an organization are required to carry out and discharge their legal, moral and regulatory accountabilities and responsibilities.
 
CORRECTIVE ACTIONThe action to eliminate the cause of a detected non-conformity or other undesirable situation.
 
COST ANALYSISA study of the costs (personnel, products, equipment, etc.) associated with implementing a project, program, service, or other activities.
 
COST PER YEAR OF USE(also known as Cost per Couple-Year of Protection) The cost of supplying an average client with a contraceptive for one year. The cost is calculated using the total cost per visit (personnel cost plus supplies), the average number of follow-up visits per year, and the average length of use of that method. The cost per year of use is a measure of output—the total cost of one couple-year of protection (CYP).
 
COST VARIANCEThe difference between the expected and actual expenditures for a product, service, or program.
 
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSISFinancial technique for measuring the cost of implementing a particular solution and compares that with the benefit delivered by that solution. A means of measuring the costs associated with a specific program, project, activity or benefit compared with the total benefit or value derived.
 
COST-EFFECTIVENESSA method of measuring the relative efficiency of a program by comparing the cost with the impact, using an indicator such as the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR). One purpose of a cost-effectiveness study is to identify program strategies and operational modes that achieve the greatest impact for the least cost.
 
COUPLE-YEARS OF PROTECTION (CYP)A measure representing the total number of years of contraceptive protection provided by a method. For each method, the CYP is calculated by taking the number units distributed and dividing that number by a factor representing the number of units (of that method) needed to protect a couple for one year.
 
CQI CORE GROUPUsed in a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program, the core group is a group of people designated to lead the CQI process. The group is responsible for planning the implementation of the process, getting it started, developing training materials, organizing and providing training for all staff, and supporting it at all levels of the organization.
 
CRISISAn abnormal situation which threatens the operations, staff, customers or reputation of an enterprise.
 
CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAMA Group of individuals responsible for developing and implementing a comprehensive plan for responding to a disruptive incident. The team consists of a core group of decision-makers trained in incident management and prepared to respond to any situation.
 
CRITICALA qualitative description used to emphasize the importance of a resource, process or function that must be available and operational either constantly or at the earliest possible time after an incident, emergency or disaster has occurred.
 
CRITICAL ACTIVITIESThose activities which have to be performed to deliver the key products and services and which enable an organization to meet the most important and time-sensitive objectives.
 
CRITICAL BUSINESS FUNCTION (CBF)Vital functions without which an organization will either not survive or will lose the capability to effectively achieve its critical objectives. A critical business function may involve a single structural unit of the organization, or may involve activities across several structural units. A single structural unit may have responsibility for one or more critical business functions.
 
CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMA group of individuals made up of people from different programs or departments, such as nursing, laboratory services, administration, and outreach who work together to achieve a common goal.
 
CROSS-SUBSIDIZATION CROSS-SUBSIDIESThe system of using monies generated in one service to support the cost of another service within the same program. For example, monies generated from sales of contraceptives in one clinic can be used to subsidize the cost of providing services to clients who are unable to pay for services or contraceptives in that same clinic or at other program sites.
 
CROSS-TABULATIONA table or chart used for simultaneously displaying summary data pertaining to two or more different sets of variables.
 
CROSS-TRAININGTraining staff to perform the functions of other staff members, so that when some staff are too busy or sick, other staff can help perform their job functions.
 
CULTURESets the tone for an organization, influencing the consciousness of its people. Cultural factors include the integrity, ethical values and competence of the entity’s people management’s philosophy and operating style; the way management assigns authority and responsibility, and organises and develops its people; and the attention and direction provided by a Board.
 
DAMAGE ASSESSMENTAn appraisal of the effects of the disaster or incident on human, physical, economic and operational capabilities.
 
DEDICATED WORK AREAWork space provided for sole use by a single organization, configured ready for use.
 
DESK TOP EXERCISETechnique for rehearsing emergency teams in which participants review and discuss the actions they would take according to their plans, but do not perform any of these actions; can be conducted with a single team, or multiple teams, typically under the guidance of exercise facilitators.
 
DISASTERA physical event which interrupts business processes sufficiently to threaten the viability of the organization.
 
DISASTER DECLARATIONThe staff should be familiar with the list of assessment criteria of an incident versus disaster situation established by the BCM or DR Steering Committee and the notification procedure when a disaster occurs. Usually, for the invocation of 3rd party services or insurance claims there will be need for a formal Disaster Declaration.
 
DISASTER DECLARATION OFFICERThe Disaster Declaration Officer is assigned the task, responsibility and authority to declare a disaster and activate the appropriate level of plan. This person is appointed and given the line of authority which is documented in the BCM process manual.
 
DISASTER MANAGEMENTStrategies for prevention, preparedness and response to disasters and the recovery of essential post-disaster services.
 
DISASTER RECOVERY (DR)The strategies and plans for recovering and restoring the organizations technological infra-structure and capabilities after a serious interruption.
 
DISASTER RECOVERY PLANNING (DRP)The activities associated with the continuing availability and restoration of the IT infrastructure.
 
DISCONTINUER(also known as Dropout) Someone who was formerly using a method of contraception but, for any of a variety of reasons, is no longer using contraception.
 
DISRUPTIONAn event that interrupts normal business, functions, operations, or processes, whether anticipated (e.g., hurricane, political unrest) or unanticipated (e.g., a blackout, terror attack, technology failure, or earthquake).
 
DOCUMENTInformation and its supporting medium such as paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc or image.
 
DOWNTIMEA period in time when something is not in operation.
 
DROPOUTSee Discontinuer
 
EFFICIENCYThe extent to which a program has used resources appropriately and completed activities in a timely manner.
 
ELCO MAPA graphic representation of the location in a community or village of ELigible COuples (ELCOs—usually married couples of reproductive age, but the definition of eligible couple varies by country), showing where they live and the type of contraceptive method they are currently using. Generally used by fieldworkers, these maps keep track of each couple reproductive status and any changes in the contraceptive method they use.
 
EMERGENCYA generic term with different interpretations in different regions. In the US it means a wide-scale disaster requiring federal support and triggering FEMA funding. In other countries it would be considered equivalent in meaning to a Major Incident.
 
EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTRE (EOC)The facility used by the Incident Management Team after the first phase of a plan invocation. An organization must have a primary and secondary location for an EOC in the event of one being unavailable. It may also serve as a reporting point for deliveries, services, press and all external contacts.
 
EMERGENCY ORDERAn order for contraceptives or commodities that is placed out of the normal ordering schedule, usually when stocks have run dangerously low due to an unforeseen increase in demand. Emergency orders are usually placed for a quantity that will bring the stock levels up to a level that will last until the normal reorder time, taking into account the amount that will be dispensed in the interim.
 
EMERGENCY PLANNINGDevelopment and maintenance of agreed procedures to prevent, reduce, control, mitigate and take other actions in the event of a civil emergency. The process of establishing specific measures or actions to be taken when responding to catastrophic events or tragedies (i.e., fire, earthquake, severe storms, workplace violence, kidnapping, bomb threats, acts of terrorism or other emergency situations) in the workplace.
 
EMERGENCY RESPONSEActions taken in response to a disaster warning or alert to minimize or contain the eventual negative effects, and those taken to save and preserve lives and provide basic services in the immediate aftermath of a disaster impact, for as long as an emergency situation prevails.
 
EMERGENT STAGEThe first stage of organizational development in which the primary goal is to start delivering services. This stage is characterized by an incomplete or unclear organizational mission, a simple organizational structure, basic programs and systems, and a high dependence on external financial support. (See Stages of Organizational Development.)
 
END-TO-ENDIn entirety, from start to finish.
 
ENDOWMENTA financial gift or gift with considerable financial value which may be sold or invested to produce additional income through interest, rent, or dividends and then used at a future time for institutional needs.
 
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENTERM includes the methods and processes used by organizations to manage risks and seize opportunities related to the achievement of their objectives. ERM provides a framework for risk management, which typically involves identifying particular events or circumstances relevant to the organization objectives (risks and opportunities), assessing them in terms of likelihood and magnitude of impact, determining a response strategy, and monitoring progress. By identifying and proactively addressing risks and opportunities, business enterprises protect and create value for their stakeholders, including owners, employees, customers, regulators, and society overall.
 
ESSENTIAL SERVICESInfrastructure services without which a building or area would be considered disabled and unable to provide normal operating services; typically includes utilities (water, gas, electricity, telecommunications), and may also include standby power systems or environmental control systems.
 
EVALUATIONA study of a program in which any number of different processes may be used to gather and analyze information to determine whether the program is carrying out the activities that it had planned and the extent to which the program is achieving its stated objectives (through these activities). Evaluation results can be used to learn in what areas the program is most effective and what modifications should be made to improve the program.
 
EVENTOccurrence or change of a particular set of circumstances.
 
EXCLUSION ZONEBoundary line of an area or zone that is controlled by emergency services personnel, and from which all unauthorized persons are excluded for a period of time determined by emergency services leadership.
 
EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENTA person or group of people who directs and controls an organization at the highest level. In larger organizations this might be called the Board, Directors, Executives or Senior Managers. In a small organization, the owner or sole proprietor.
 
EXERCISERehearse the roles of team members and staff, and test the recovery or continuity of an organization systems (e.g., technology, telephony, administration) to demonstrate business continuity competence and capability.
 
EXPENDITURESExpense payments made in cash or checks.
 
EXPENSESAll the costs incurred in operating a program. In an accrual system, an expense is recorded in the accounting system when it is incurred, before cash is paid.
 
EXPIRATION DATEThe date determined by the manufacturer after which a contraceptive or other drug product should no longer be dispensed to or used by clients.
 
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTThe prevailing conditions in the country or region that affect the development and implementation of the family planning program including demographics, culture, policy, economy, health, market characteristics, and sources of funding and commodities.
 
FACILITATIVE SUPERVISIONAn approach to supervision that emphasizes mentoring, joint problem solving, and two-way communications between the supervisor and the worker.
 
FACILITATORA person who assists, encourages, and supports a group of people in a participative way to work together, make decisions, and resolve conflict for the purpose of achieving a common goal. A trainer who assists a group in learning or reaching a specific goal by directing and controlling the group process and allowing the group to work collectively to resolve problems and come up with solutions.
 
FACILITYPlant, machinery, equipment, property, buildings, vehicles, information systems, transportation facilities, and other items of infrastructure or plant and related systems that have a distinct and quantifiable function or service.
 
FAMILY PLANNING ACTIVITIES WORKSHEETA form sometimes used in busy clinics as an intermediary form between the Daily Activity Register and the Monthly Summary. The totals from the Daily Activity Register are transferred to the Worksheet each day, then totaled for the month and transferred to the Monthly Summary of Family Planning Activities.
 
FEE-FOR-SERVICE PROGRAMA program that charges a fee for individual services provided by the program or clinic. In a fee-for-service program a different fee is usually charged for each type of service provided, based on the actual cost of providing that service. In such a program, a new client receiving her first supply of pills will generally pay more than a continuing user who returns for a resupply. This is because the new client receives more comprehensive services on a first visit than a revisit client who is only picking up a resupply of pills.
 
FEEDBACKThe process that allows for two-way communication between the field and the office or an employee and a supervisor, for the purpose of modifying, correcting, and strengthening performance and results. Positive or negative information provided to an individual in the form of coaching or counseling regarding his or her performance or behavior.
 
FEMAFederal Emergency Management Agency – the US agency responsible for responding to wide area disasters and emergencies.
 
FINANCIAL AUDITA formal periodic examination of accounts and financial records of an organization or program, generally performed for the purposes of verifying that funds were used as they were intended and in accordance with standard financial management practices.
 
FINANCIAL IMPACTOperating expenses that continue following an interruption or disaster, which as a result of the event cannot be offset by income and directly affects the financial position of the organization.
 
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENTA process of implementing and managing financial control systems, collecting financial data, analyzing financial reports, and making sound financial decisions based on the analyses. Financial management requires knowing how to read and interpret three key documents a cash flow projection worksheet, a balance sheet, and an income statement.
 
FINANCIAL POSITIONThe financial status of an organization at a particular point in time. The financial position indicates the organization overall financial situation, taking into account current assets and liabilities, and projected income and expenses.
 
FINANCIAL REPORTINGAn established system for periodic reporting on financial transactions and financial status of an organization or program.
 
FINANCIAL STATEMENTThe financial reports covering a period of time (month or year) that summarize the income and expenses for the period (Income and Expense Reports), and the assets and liabilities (Balance Sheet) at the end of the period. A report containing financial information derived from an organizational accounting record.
 
FIRST RESPONDERA member of an emergency service who is first on the scene at a disruptive incident. This would normally be police, fire or ambulance personnel.
 
FIRST-TO-EXPIRE, FIRST-OUT (FEFO)A supply management system whereby contraceptives with the earliest expiration date are distributed first and contraceptives with later expiration dates are distributed only after the earlier-dated supplies have been issued.
 
FIT-FOR-PURPOSEMeeting an organization requirements.
 
FIVE-TABLE SYSTEMOften used in mobile, community-based approaches, the five-table system is a program that provides integrated maternal and child health and family planning services at one, temporary location. In this system, a table is set up for each of five services registering the child; weighing the child; recording the results on a growth chart; providing health information (such as nutrition, oral rehydration, immunization, breastfeeding, child spacing family planning information); and providing any necessary medical treatment, contraceptives, or a referral to a fixed health facility as needed.
 
FLOWCHARTA chart used to analyze a process or activity that shows the sequence of activities, steps, and decision points that occur in a particular, discrete process, such as registering a client in a clinic. By defining a beginning and end point for the process and analyzing each step in the process, managers can identify problem areas and potential improvements in order to reach the desired outcome(s).
 
FOCUS GROUPA planned and guided discussion among a group of participants for the purpose of examining a specific issue or issues. This is a qualitative method of gathering information. Results of focus group discussions are often complemented with or serve to further explain quantitative data collected through surveys or other quantitative methods. A small group of individuals who are interviewed through structured facilitator-led discussions in order to solicit opinions, thoughts and ideas about a particular subject or topic area.
 
FOLLOW-UP VISITSee Revisit
 
FORCE MAJEURESituations, caused by an occurrence beyond reasonable control and somehow unpredicted, including acts of compliance with governmental authority; acts of God; strikes or other concerted acts of workmen; fires; floods; explosions; riots; war or armed conflict, declared or undeclared; rebellion; and sabotage...
 
FORCE MAJEURESituations, caused by an occurrence beyond reasonable control and somehow unpredicted, including acts of compliance with governmental authority; acts of God; strikes or other concerted acts of workmen; fires; floods; explosions; riots; war or armed conflict, declared or undeclared; rebellion; and sabotage...
 
FREQUENCY TABLEA chart used to record the number of times a particular event or occurrence takes place in a given time period, such as number of new acceptors and revisits during each month of the previous year, or for each reason cited for not using contraception, the number of people stating those reasons, etc.
 
FUNCTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIESThe types of work responsibilities that a person or group is accountable for performing, such as planning, monitoring, evaluating, providing medical services, training, etc.
 
FUND RAISINGThe process of seeking financial support from community groups, local or central government units, local or international donor organizations or individuals, and others.
 
FUNNEL APPROACHUsed to describe an approach to delivering integrated services, the "funnel" approach depicts an agency or organization that separates its various programs vertically at the national and district levels, but integrates the programs and services at the clinic community level. (See also "Hourglass" Approach.)
 
GAINA positive consequence of an event or incident.
 
GANTT CHARTSee Chronogram
 
GENERAL ADMINISTRATIONActivities or, in the case of a budget, expenditures associated with the normal course of doing business, such as postage, freight, photocopying, telephone, utilities, bank charges, vehicle registration, and other usual and customary administrative costs (excluding personnel costs).
 
GOALSThe proposed long-range benefits of the program to the selected population, defined in general terms.
 
GOVERNANCE, RISK AND COMPLIANCE (GRC)GRC is the umbrella term covering an organization approach across these three areas. Being closely related concerns, governance, risk and compliance activities are increasingly being integrated and aligned to some extent in order to avoid conflicts, wasteful overlaps and gaps. While interpreted differently in various organizations, GRC typically encompasses activities such as corporate governance, enterprise risk management (ERM) and corporate compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
 
GRANTSFunds or donations given to an organization or program for the purpose of carrying out specific programs or services. Grants are usually provided by governments and local or international donors.
 
GRAPHUsed in data analysis, a graph illustrates in a picture the relationships or patterns that exist between numbers and sets of numbers, which would otherwise be difficult to see by looking at the raw data.
 
GROWTH STAGEThe second stage of organizational development. At this stage, organizations develop a clear mission, define strategies for fulfilling the mission, have specific goals and objectives, and develop and use operational plans to achieve objectives. During this stage, as activities and services rapidly expand, the organization reliance on external resources to support those programs and services also increases.
 
HAZARDA potential cause of an unwanted incident, which may result in harm to individuals, assets, a system or organization, the environment, or the community.
 
HAZCHEMHazardous chemicals
 
HAZMATHazardous material
 
HAZOPHazardous operation
 
HISTOGRAMA type of bar chart used to display data within a single data category such as age, which can be grouped as 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, etc. A normal bar chart is used to display data representing different categories of data, such as users of contraceptives, non-users of contraceptives, city or rural residence, etc. (For more information on Histograms and Bar Charts, please refer to Volume II, Number 1, of The Family Planning Manager "Using CQI to Strengthen Family Planning Programs" and the supplement "Manager Toolbox for CQI")
 
HISTORICAL DATAData collected from past reports, such as contraceptive distribution reports, daily activity registers, inventory cards, etc.
 
HOT SITEA facility equipped with full technical requirements including IT, Telecoms and infrastructure, and which can be used to provide rapid resumption of operations.
 
HOURGLASS APPROACHUsed to describe an approach to delivering integrated services, the "hourglass" approach depicts a combined vertical and integrated program in which staff at the national level are divided into separate divisions for family planning, immunization, infectious disease control, nutrition, and maternal health. At the regional or district level, however, programs are coordinated by one or two individuals, and at the service provider level staff are again assigned to separate programs. (See also "Funnel" Approach.)
 
HOUSEHOLD SURVEYA survey that collects information about the occupation(s) of a couple, the contraceptive method they use and or have used in the past, whether the woman is pregnant or breastfeeding, recent births, total number of births and deaths, and other information concerning a couple reproductive health and family planning history that is of interest to the program. Household surveys are used to establish the level or the indicator against which future results are compared.
 
ICT CONTINUITYCapability of the organization to plan for and respond to incidents and disruptions in order to continue lCT services at an acceptable level.
 
IDENTIFICATION CODESA series of numbers or letters used in a management information system to help differentiate specific locations of services (or clinic type), types of visits (first visit, revisit, procedure visit), types of services or contraceptives provided (IEC, IUD insertion, pill resupply), and other categories of data. To be useful, the same identification codes should be used consistently by all people who use the management information system.
 
IMPACTIn a family planning and reproductive health program, the extent to which the program has changed or improved the knowledge, attitudes, behavior, or health of the program participants.
 
IMPACT ANALYSISThe process of analysing all operational activities and the effect that an operational impact might have upon them.
 
IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONA non-financial contribution or form compensation such as materials, goods, or services.
 
INCENTIVE GRANTSFunds used to reward program performance, the achievement of objectives, or to motivate programs to launch new initiatives. Incentive grants are used to motivate programs and employees to (continue to) meet their objectives and maintain or improve program quality.
 
INCIDENTAn event that has the capacity to lead to loss of or a disruption to an organization operations, services, or functions – which, if not managed, can escalate into an emergency, crisis, or disaster.
 
INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS)The combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures and communications operating within a common organizational structure, designed to aid in the management of resources during incidents.
 
INCIDENT MANAGEMENT PLAN (IMP)A clearly defined and documented plan of action for use at the time of an incident, typically covering the key personnel, resources, services and actions needed to implement the incident management process.
 
INCIDENT MANAGEMENT TEAM (IMT)A Group of individuals responsible for developing and implementing a comprehensive plan for responding to a disruptive incident. The team consists of a core group of decision-makers trained in incident management and prepared to respond to any situation.
 
INCOME STATEMENT(also known as Revenue and Expense Report, Income and Expense Report, and Profit and Loss Statement) A periodic summary report of income and expenses, showing a surplus (profit) or deficit (loss) for the period covered by the report.
 
INDICATORA certain condition, capability, or numerical measure which, when recorded, collected, and analyzed, makes complex concepts more readily measurable and allows managers and evaluators to compare actual program results with expected results.
 
INDIRECT COSTSExpenses, such as fringe benefits, overhead, utilities, rent or equipment, that have been incurred for the purpose of common general activities and cannot be identified or charged directly to the production of a specific project. (also known as Overhead Costs)The operating costs of an organization which are shared by more than one activity or department (such as building maintenance and utility expenses).
 
INFORMATION SYSTEMA standardized system for collecting, recording, interpreting, analyzing, reporting, and disseminating data so that the data are available to be used for making critical management decisions. In a family planning clinic, this normally refers to collection and reporting of programmatic and financial information connected with providing client services and operating a facility. (See also Two-Tier Information System)
 
INREACHIn family planning, this involves using resources within a health facility to improve the understanding and knowledge of the facility family services (as compared with Outreach). Inreach addresses missed opportunities to provide information about the facility family planning services to staff, clients, and potential clients in all departments of the facility. Inreach activities include improving linkages and referrals between departments, posting signs about services throughout the facility, and orienting staff from other departments to the family planning services.
 
INSERTION VISITGenerally used to describe a visit made by a client for the insertion of an IUD or contraceptive implant. Different types of visits are often designated by a program or clinic so that specific costs may be assigned or fees charged for each type of visit.
 
INSTITUTIONALIZATIONThe internalization by an organization or program of an activity, system, or practice, to the extent that the activity, system, or practice will continue to operate in spite of personnel turnover, and independently of external inputs or involvement.
 
INTEGRATED TESTINGExamination of a plan that addresses multiple plan components, in conjunction with each other, typically under simulated operating conditions.
 
INTEGRATION INTEGRATED SERVICESThis refers to a program that combines family planning services with maternal and child health, nutrition, immunization, and other reproductive health services, such as control and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.
 
INTEGRITYThe safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of assets, particularly data records.
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYProperty which is protected under federal law, including trade secrets, confidential or proprietary information, copyrightable or creative works, ideas, patents or inventions. It includes all works, including literary, pictorial, graphic, sculptural, and architectural works, works of visual art, and any other work, work for hire, or moral right that may be the subject matter of copyright protection; advertising and marketing concepts; information; Confidential Information; data; formulas; designs; models; drawings; computer programs, including all documentation, related listings, design specifications, and flowcharts; trade secrets, and any inventions including all processes, machines, manufactures, and compositions of matter and any other invention that may be the subject matter of patent protection; and all statutory protection obtained or obtainable on the work or patent.
 
INTERMEDIATE OUTPUTSMedium-term results that are critical to the achievement of long-term results. For example, the number of workshops or courses held is a medium-term result that is critical to achieving the long-term result of producing qualified providers.
 
INTERNAL AUDITInternal audits are conducted by the organization itself for management review and other agreed internal purposes. The process of conducting an in-house examination of one or more of an organization’s processes, functions, programs, etc.
 
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTLeadership, policies, systems, technology, financial capability, etc., that influence the effectiveness of an organization or program. Other factors in the internal environment include management structure, management systems, staff capabilities, etc.
 
INTERNAL ORGANIZATIONThe internal structure and arrangement of an organization or program as it pertains to the allocation of and relationship between different functional areas such as planning, budgeting, financial management, supervision, and others. The internal organization of a program is particularly important as programs become more decentralized and or integrate several programs into a single program.
 
INVENTORYThe amount of stock (contraceptives, commodities, and other clinic supplies) that is on hand (for use by a program or clinic) at a given point in time.
 
INVENTORY CONTROL CARDSee Stock Card
 
INVOCATIONDeclaration that an organization BCP needs to be put into effect in order to continue to deliver key products and services.
 
ISO 27000 SERIESISO standards for Information Security, one section of which provides guidance on Business Continuity.
 
ISO 31000ISO standard for Risk Management.
 
ISO DIS 22301ISO 22301 the pending international standard for Societal security - Preparedness and continuity management systems and is expected to be released 2010. As with other standards the specification standard will be accompanied by a code of practice.
 
ISO PAS 22399ISO PAS 22399 2007 was developed to provide general guidance for an organization - private, government, and 3rd sector - to develop its own specific performance criteria for incident preparedness and operational continuity, and design an appropriate management system.
 
JOB DESCRIPTIONA document that at a minimum lists the job title and provides a description of the tasks and responsibilities of the position, the direct supervisory relationships with other staff, and the skills and qualifications required for the position. A written description of a job which includes information regarding the general nature of the work to be performed, specific responsibilities and duties, and the employee characteristics required to perform the job.
 
JUST-IN-TIME (JIT)System whereby dependencies for critical business processes are provided exactly when required, without requiring intermediate inventory.
 
LEAD TIMEThe amount of time (usually expressed in months or weeks) that it takes for a shipment to arrive once an order has been placed.
 
LEAD TIME QUANTITYBased on past records, the amount of contraceptive stock that will be dispensed during the time between placing an order and receiving new stock.
 
LIKELIHOODChance of something happening, whether defined, measured or estimated objectively or subjectively. It can use general descriptors (such as rare, unlikely, likely, almost certain), frequencies or mathematical probabilities. It can be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively.
 
LINE GRAPHA graph that represents data or sets of data that have been collected over a period of time. The data are plotted on a graph corresponding to standard intervals of time and a line is drawn connecting the data points. The line in the graph allows managers to see trends in the data (an increase, decrease, or no change) over a period of time. Line graphs are often used to analyze trends in new acceptors, continuing clients, dropouts, new acceptors using a particular method, and others. Line graphs (updated regularly) help managers to follow a trend over a period of time and take actions to manage the trend.
 
LOGISTICS MANAGEMENTSee Contraceptive Supply Management
 
LONG-ACTING METHODS(also known as Long-Term Methods) Contraceptive methods that remain effective for a relatively long period of time. Experts may differ in the methods they include under this term. Some experts include only IUDs, implants, and injectables, some also include oral contraceptive pills, and some include voluntary sterilization.
 
LOSSNegative consequence, which may be financial, e.g. loss of revenue or cash, or non-financial, e.g. loss of information, goodwill, economic value, function, natural resources, ecological systems, environmental impact, health deterioration, mortality, morbidity.
 
MAINTENANCE COSTGenerally refers to the cost of maintaining a facility and may include repairs, cleaning, rent, taxes, insurance, etc.
 
MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTINGCollecting information from the financial accounting system and other financial data (such as budgets) and combining this information with statistical data (such as service outputs) to produce information which is useful for making managerial decisions.
 
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO)A performance appraisal strategy in which subordinates determine and set goals for themselves based on the overall goals and objectives for the organization.
 
MANAGEMENT COMPONENTSThe basic elements used to analyze the way an organization functions. The four basic management components are mission, strategy, structure, and systems. (See also Mission Statement, Strategy, Organizational Structure, and Management Functions Systems.)
 
MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTAn individual who works independently to assist and advise clients with managerial responsibilities regarding various organizational issues.
 
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS SYSTEMSThe basic management functions of program planning, budgeting, determining staff roles and responsibilities, training, supervising staff, managing resources (including money, contraceptive and commodities supplies, and other program equipment or services), monitoring program activities, evaluating program achievements, and managing the provision of client services.
 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMA system to establish policy and objectives and to the means to achieve those objectives in a way that can be independently measured.
 
MANAGING BOARDA formal group of advisors who provide general strategic and financial oversight to an organization and are responsible for maintaining and promoting the stability and sustainability of the organization.
 
MAOMaximum Acceptable Outage. The duration after which an organization viability will be threatened if an IT system or service cannot be resumed.
 
MAPPINGA process by which information or data are laid out on a diagram or representation of a community, village, or other defined territory for the purposes of tracking changes in the data.
 
MARKET ANALYSISAn examination of the environment in which an organization or program provides or sells goods or services. A market analysis typically includes conducting a survey of its current clients (their needs, satisfaction with services, socio-economic status, etc.), a survey of the community (to learn more about potential clients and the existing demand for services), and a survey of the other family planning service providers in the area (the types of services they provide, the cost and quality of services, etc.). This information provides a program or organization with critical information about underserved populations in their area, the level of access to services, feedback on clients satisfaction with services, the ability of clients to pay or the amount they can pay for services, and other information about the role the program should play in relation to other service providers in order to maintain a competitive edge. Having the ability to address these factors serves to strengthen program sustainability.
 
MARKETINGThe activities related to designing and pricing goods and services so that they are bought or used by the public, informing the public of the available services and their prices, and promoting the value of those goods and services for the purpose of generating demand.
 
MATRIX(also known as a Comparison Table) A chart used for analyzing two or more sets or types of information (such as the number of users of each contraceptive method by type of client, such as new acceptor or revisit). A comparison table can also be used for comparing organizational processes or activities against a set of criteria that reflect organizational priorities, resources, and constraints to help managers prioritize areas for improvement.
 
MATURE STAGEThe fourth and last stage of organizational development, during which an organization develops its ability to effectively manage the organization and adjust its mission, strategy, structure, and systems in response to internal and external challenges in order to increase sustainability. (See Stages of Organizational Development.)
 
MAX MIN (MAXIMUM-MINIMUM) STOCK LEVELAssigned minimum and maximum stock levels designed to ensure that a program does not run out of contraceptive supplies and also does not become overstocked. Minimum and maximum levels are expressed in terms of a certain number of month worth of supply.
 
MAXIMUM QUANTITYThe maximum quantity is the largest amount of stock (of each contraceptive item) that a facility should ever have in inventory. The quantity should be set high enough to maintain adequate stock between orders and low enough to prevent overstocking and wastage due to expiration. It is calculated separately for each contraceptive item and consists of the minimum quantity of stock plus the amount that is used between regular orders. (A formula for calculating maximum and minimum stock levels and quantities can be found on pages 10 and 11 of Volume I, Number 4 of The Family Planning Manager, "Improving Contraceptive Supply Management")
 
MAXIMUM TOLERABLE DATA LOSS (MTDL)The maximum loss of information (electronic and other data) which an organization can tolerate. The age of the data could make operational recovery impossible or the value of the lost data is so substantial as to put business viability at risk.
 
MAXIMUM TOLERABLE PERIOD OF DISRUPTION (MTPD OR MTPOD)The duration after which an organization’s viability will be irrevocably threatened if a product or service delivery cannot be resumed.
 
MEMBERSHIP FEESFixed fees charged to clients or members of an organization, usually on a yearly basis, entitling them to a range of services.
 
METHOD MIXA summary, usually represented in percentages, showing the proportion of all users (of a general or specific population) that are using each contraceptive method.
 
MICRO-MANAGEThe practice of providing unnecessary and excessive oversight in the management of staff and staff activities.
 
MINIMUM BUSINESS CONTINUITY OBJECTIVE (MBCO)Minimally acceptable collection of business continuity services and or products that is acceptable to an organization or industry to achieve its business objectives that can be influenced or dictated by regulation or legislation level of business continuity.
 
MINIMUM QUANTITYThe minimum quantity is the least amount of stock (of each contraceptive item) that a facility should ever have in inventory. The minimum quantity should be set high enough to prevent shortages and stock-outs, even if deliveries are late or demand unexpectedly increases. The minimum quantity is the safety stock quantity plus the amount of stock used between placing and receiving an order. (A formula for calculating maximum and minimum stock levels and quantities can be found on pages 10 and 11 of Volume I, Number 4 of The Family Planning Manager, "Improving Contraceptive Supply Management")
 
MISSED OPPORTUNITYAn occasion that offered a chance for a beneficial activity to occur (service provision, employee feedback, etc.) but was overlooked.
 
MISSING CLIENTSee No-Show Client
 
MISSION STATEMENT(also known as Organizational Mission) A brief general statement describing the type of organization, its main purpose, and its values. The mission of an organization provides the rationale for defining goals and objectives.
 
MITIGATIONLimitation of any negative consequence of a particular incident.
 
MOBILE RECOVERY SOLUTIONSTransportable operating environment - often a large trailer - complete with office facilities and computer equipment that can be delivered and deployed a suitable site at short notice.
 
MONITORINGThe process of periodically checking the status of a program, by observing whether activities are being conducted as planned.
 
MONTHLY SUMMARY OF FAMILY PLANNING ACTIVITIESThe form used to record the monthly totals for all the data collected on the Daily Family Planning Activity Records. Generally, the clinic manager keeps one copy and another copy is sent to the program supervisor who aggregates the monthly data for all the clinics in the region or district.
 
MONTHS OF SUPPLY(also known as Month Worth of Supply)This term is used to express the amount of a supply on hand (of a specific contraceptive or commodity) in terms of the number of months that quantity would last if it is dispensed at current (average) rates. It is the quantity on hand (of the specific contraceptive or commodity) divided by the average monthly consumption (AMC) of that item.
 
MS 1970Business Continuity Standard from the Malaysian Standards and Accreditation Council
 
MTBFMean Time Between Failures. Engineering terminology.
 
MTOMaximum Tolerable Outage
 
MUTUALLY ACCOUNTABLEA situation in which multiple parties or individuals are jointly responsible for the outcome(s) of an activity or activities.
 
NEMANational Emergency Management Association – US organization.
 
NEW ACCEPTOR(also known as New User) Someone who accepts a contraceptive method for the first time. Programs differ in their definition of new acceptors new users. Some include only those persons who are using contraception for the first time and have never used any form of contraception before. Some also include those persons who are using a particular contraceptive method for the first time (even though they have used a different method before). Still others may include those persons who are accepting a method from (an agent of) that particular program for the first time (even though they may have used a method provided by another program before). Whatever definitions your program uses, it is critical that the definitions be clear and understood by all staff, so that service data in all the service facilities will be collected and reported on in the same way.
 
NEW CLIENT(also known as First Visit or First Consultation of a Client) Someone who receives services from (an agent of) a family planning program who has not received services from that program before. Programs differ in their definitions of new clients. Some programs include persons who receive any type of service (including counseling) who have not received services from that program before. Other programs include only persons who are accepting a family planning method for the first time and have never used contraceptives before from any program. Still other programs distinguish new clients (of a program) from new acceptors users (of a method). Whatever definitions your program uses, it is critical that the definitions be clear and understood by all staff, so that service data in all the service facilities will be collected and reported on in the same way.
 
NFPANational Fire Protection Association – US developer of BCM and Disaster Response standards.
 
NFPA 1600A US standard for Disaster Emergency Management programmes.
 
NO-SHOW CLIENT(also known as a Missing Client) A client who does not come for a scheduled visit or has not returned to the clinic for services for a long period of time.
 
NO-SHOW RATEOften expressed as a percentage, the no-show rate can be calculated most easily in a clinic that uses an appointment system, in which it is known when and how many clients are due to return to the clinic for services. The no-show rate is calculated by taking the total number of clients who came to the clinic for services (during a specific period of time) divided by the number of clients who were due to come to the clinic for services during the same period of time. Multiplying the result by 100 gives the percent of no shows for the designated period of time. Such an analysis can also be done for a specific contraceptive method or age group of clients. (For more information on measuring no-show rates, please refer to Volume II, Number 3 of The Family Planning Manager, "Reducing Discontinuation in Family Planning Programs.")
 
NON COMPLIANCEFailure to fulfil an agreed requirement or expectation of a BCM programme.
 
NON-CONFORMITYThe non fulfilment of a specific requirement defined in a standard, documented practice, agreed procedure or legislation.
 
OBJECTIVEAn overall goal, consistent with the policy that an organization sets for itself. A specification of what is to be accomplished, the timeframe in which it is to be accomplished and by whom.
 
OBJECTIVESThe anticipated results or outcomes of a program, representing changes in the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the program clients, described in measurable terms and indicating a specific period of time during which these results will be achieved. Objectives should be Specific, Measurable, Appropriate, Realistic, and Time bound (SMART).
 
OBSERVATION-STUDY VISITSAn organized series of visits to other program sites or organizations for the purpose of studying and learning about the other program and sharing successful experiences for replication or adaptation.
 
OEEOverall Equipment Efficiency – a term used in manufacturing.
 
OPERATING COSTS(also known as Recurrent Costs) Regular expenses of running programs and providing services which are incurred year after year (as opposed to Capital Costs).
 
OPERATIONAL PLANDifferent from a strategic plan (which sets forth the general strategies a program will use or initiatives it will undertake to achieve its objectives), an operational plan sets forth the specific projects or activities (consistent with the strategic plan) that will be conducted, and the timetable and resources needed for completing those projects or activities. (See also Action Plan.)
 
OPERATIONAL RESILIENCE (OR)Ability of an organization, staff, system, telecommunications network, activity or process to absorb the impact of a business interruption, disruption or loss and continue to provide an acceptable level of service.
 
OPERATIONAL RISKRisk that deficiencies in information systems or internal controls will result in unexpected loss.
 
ORDER INTERVALAn established and regular number of months between placing orders for contraceptive supplies. The order interval should be set individually for each method of contraception to correspond to the desired maximum and minimum inventory levels.
 
ORGANIZATIONA group of people and facilities with an arrangement of responsibilities, authorities, and relationships. (e.g., company, corporation, firm, enterprise, institution, charity or association). An organization can be public, private, or not-for-profit. A structure through which individuals cooperate systematically to conduct business.
 
ORGANIZATION BCM COORDINATORAn individual who is assigned the overall responsibility for co-coordination of the BCM planning programme including team member training, testing and maintenance of plans.
 
ORGANIZATION TYPEThe structural or legal definition an organization, such as private commercial organization, private non-profit, public agency, non-governmental organization, or affiliate or subsidiary of a larger organization.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL CHART(also known as an Organogram) A chart showing the working relationships of all staff positions within an organization or program and the formal supervisory structure and reporting relationships between different functions and positions of the management and staff.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL STABILITYThe ability of an organization to effectively use management controls and systems to prevent any major disruptions in services in spite of unexpected changes in the external environment or turnover of personnel, especially senior personnel.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTUREThe internal lines of authority and communication within an organization which define how programs and departments are managed, which types of activities are carried out by which programs or departments, and the functional and supervisory relationships between the staff and the manager of those departments. (See also Organizational Chart.) The design of an organization that identifies the organization’s hierarchal reporting and authority relationships.
 
ORGANOGRAMSee Organizational Chart
 
OUTAGEA period in time when something is not in operation.
 
OUTPUT INFORMATIONInformation concerning the products or accomplishments (in numerical terms) of the activities of an individual or program over a specific period of time.
 
OUTREACHActivities related to providing information and services to the community outside of the clinic facility, usually by working with community groups or volunteers.
 
OVERHEAD COSTSSee Indirect Costs
 
PARETO ANALYSISBased on the principle set forth by an Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, which states that only a few factors are responsible for producing most of the results (positive or negative), a Pareto Analysis helps to identify the "vital few" factors that need to be improved in order to achieve the desired results. Performing this analysis helps managers to concentrate their efforts on a few activities and thereby use their scarce resources efficiently and effectively to achieve results.
 
PARTICIPATIVE STYLEA style of management in which the supervisor or manager actively works with his or her staff and listens to their ideas, acknowledges their points of view and accomplishments, encourages joint discussions of issues, and finds solutions together
 
PERFORMANCE TARGETS AND OBJECTIVESThe end results that are expected to be achieved by an organization or an individual employee by the end of a specific time period. Performance targets generally relate to a shorter time period (several months) and pertain to very specific tasks. Performance objectives relate to longer time periods (one year) and determine the type and scope of activities that an organization, program, or staff member will undertake for the purpose of achieving the desired results.
 
PERQUISITESA reward in cash or in kind, which is in addition to or in place of one salary, such as health benefits, club membership, free meals, or parking. A form of incentives generally given to executive employees granting them certain privileges or special consideration, such as memberships in clubs, physical fitness programs, financial counseling, etc.
 
PERSONNEL CATEGORYThe different types of personnel. In a family planning program personnel categories include doctor, nurse, pharmacist, pharmacy assistant, counselor, outreach worker, registration clerk, etc. Personnel categories are often defined for the purpose of establishing consistent salary levels and are useful when determining personnel costs associated with the types of services provided.
 
PERSONNEL COMMITTEEUsually a sub-committee of a larger group such as a board of directors, which focuses on personnel issues, concerns, and trends, and advises the larger group, board, or organization of necessary changes.
 
PERSONNEL COST(or Total Personnel Cost) The cost of paying personnel (including allowances) for their time in performing a specific service, combination of services, or set of services over a specific period of time.
 
PERSONNEL COST PER VISIT-TYPEThe cost of a single type of visit, such as a visit to insert an IUD, taking into account only the cost of the various personnel involved in providing that service.
 
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENTResponsibilities related to hiring and firing staff, supervising, promoting, organizing, motivating staff, and developing their professional capabilities. Personnel management requires strong interpersonal communication skills and skills in group facilitation, conflict resolution, and problem solving.
 
PIE CHARTA graph that represents summary data or percentages as wedges in a circle, or pie shape, so that the relationship between the data can be seen and analyzed more easily. Pie charts can be used to analyze the method mix of any type of client or for all clients in a program or clinic. Pie charts allow managers to compare proportions and represent summary data for a specific period of time, such as one month, quarter, or year.
 
PLAN, DO, CHECK, ACT (PDCA)The ISO model used as a framework in all Management Systems standards including BCMS.
 
PLATEAU EFFECT OR PLATEAUINGA situation in which a program performance—number of people served and actively practicing family planning—has leveled off. In many cases, a program that has plateaued has already achieved a contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 40 to 50 percent, has the capability to serve more clients, and must consider new ways to attract and retain clients, reduce barriers to services, reorganize programs and systems that provide services, and make other types of strategic decisions that will increase program performance.
 
POLICYThe intentions and direction of an organization as formally expressed by Top Management. The BCM policy should be consistent with the overall policy of the organization and provides the basis for the business continuity objectives. A written statement that reflects the employer’s standards and objectives relating to various employee activities and employment-related matters.
 
POPULATION DENSITYThe total number of people living in a defined area such as a community, district, capital city, country, region, or square kilometer or square mile.
 
POPULATION DISTRIBUTIONThe arrangement of population geographically as it is spread over a defined area such as community, district, capital city, country, region, etc. Knowing the distribution of population is important to managers as they plan new programs and the locations of services facilities.
 
POPULATION-BASED SURVEYA survey in which information is obtained directly from a representative sample of the population or population group of interest to the program, such as women of reproductive age. Information is typically obtained through interviews, rather than from service records or other indirect sources. (See also Cluster Survey.)
 
POTENTIAL CLIENTAny person of reproductive age who is sexually active, not currently using the services of a clinic or community-based family planning program, and does not intend to have children at the current time. Potential clients also include couples who have problems with infertility, but want to have children. Programs should seek to attract such persons to the program and provide them with appropriate services.
 
PREPAREDNESSActivities implemented prior to an incident that may be used to support and enhance mitigation of, response to, and recovery from disruptions. It is also often called “Readiness”.
 
PREVENTIONCountermeasures against specific threats that enable an organization to avoid a disruption.
 
PREVENTIVE ACTIONAn action taken to eliminate a threat or other undesirable situation.
 
PRIVATIZATIONPrivatization refers to the transfer of specific management functions, such as contraceptive procurement, logistics, and training, to private non-profit or commercial organizations outside the government structure. Although often used to describe a form of decentralization, some experts believe that privatization is not a means of decentralization because, in privatizing, a government relinquishes responsibility, rather than transfers power to lower levels.
 
PROBLEM SOLVINGA critical management skill that involves objectively identifying the causes of a problem and proposing potential, often creative, solutions to the problem, which will be agreeable to multiple parties or individuals.
 
PROCEDURESpecified way to carry out an activity.
 
PROCEDURE VISITGenerally used to describe a visit made by a client for a specific medical procedure, such as voluntary sterilization or the insertion or removal of an IUD or contraceptive implants. Different types of visits are often designated by a program or clinic so that specific costs may be assigned or fees charged for each type of visit.
 
PROCESS ANALYSISAny type of analysis in which a process, processes, or a sequence of activities is studied. Examples of process analyses are flowcharting, benchmarking, decision-tree analysis, and client flow analysis.
 
PROCESS INFORMATIONDifferent from output information which identifies products, outcomes, or accomplishments (in numerical terms), process information is qualitative, providing information about the ways that people and materials are used to produce specific outputs. For example, by using process information managers can determine the cause of a contraceptive stock out (a negative output) by analyzing each (process) step in the logistics system.
 
PRODUCT (GOOD SERVICE)The output from a process. Whether the product is then called a service depends upon whether or not there is a physical element to the output. Service is the result of at least one activity necessarily performed at the interface between the supplier and customer and is generally intangible.
 
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT(also known as Staff Development) The process of increasing the professional capabilities of staff by providing (or providing access to) training and educational opportunities. This can include on-the-job training, outside training, or observation of the work of others. Professional development is widely recognized as a way to maintain staff morale, build the institutional capacity of a program, and attract and maintain high quality staff.
 
PROFESSIONAL FEESCosts generally incurred through contractual agreements with individuals for specialized services such as lectures, training, and evaluation, as opposed to costs incurred through long-term contractual agreements with outside institutions for services such as vehicle maintenance, janitorial services, advertising, or promotion services, which are referred to as purchased services. (See Purchased Services.)
 
PROFIT AND LOSS STATEMENTSee Income Statement
 
PROGRAM(ME)An ongoing process supported by senior management and adequately funded.
 
PROGRAM(ME) MANAGEMENTThe management of the BCM programme. It ensures that the necessary steps are taken to identify the impact of potential losses, maintain viable recovery strategies and recovery plans and ensure continuity services through personnel training, plan testing and maintenance.
 
PROGRAMMATIC REPORTINGAn established system or process for reporting detailed information on the activities undertaken during a specific period of time. Programmatic reports are usually in narrative form and generally only report non-financial information about activities and progress made toward achieving objectives.
 
PROJECT ACTIVITY TIMELINESee Chronogram
 
PUBLIC AFFAIRSActivities that promote an organization program, services, and image to the public.
 
PURCHASED SERVICESLong-term contractual services or agreements with outside institutions for services such as vehicle maintenance, janitorial services, advertising or promotion services. Although similar, contractual agreements with individuals are often for a specialized service such as lectures, training, and evaluation, in which case the service is referred to as a fee-based service. (See Professional Fees.)
 
QUALITY MANAGEMENTQuality management involves monitoring products or services to ensure that suppliers and providers are following accepted standards to meet desired outcomes and, if problems are observed, are taking the actions necessary to improve the products or services.
 
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (QMS)In family planning, a system that brings together in a harmonizing and reinforcing manner the various activities that help to assure and continuously improve the quality of family planning services throughout a service-delivery network. In an effective quality management system, supervisors at all levels must have updated knowledge and skills in both service delivery and management areas.
 
QUARTERLY REPORTING FORMA form used for reporting quarterly summary information such as the number and types of clients served (new acceptors and revisit clients), the quantities (of each type and brand of contraceptive) on hand at the beginning of the quarter, the quantities received and dispensed over a three-month period, the quantities requested for resupply for the next quarter, any adjustments or losses, and ending balances.
 
RANDOM VARIATIONSNon-systematic inconsistencies or irregularities in data. When analyzing data, small (non-systematic) irregularities are often insignificant and can be disregarded.
 
RAPID ASSESSMENTA quick, economical, sample-based study conducted to determine the extent or causes of a problem or to determine specific client or program needs that were identified through service statistics or other large studies.
 
RATEA measure of an event (numerator) within a specific population (denominator) covering a specific period of time. For example, the infant mortality rate is the number of infants that die in the first year of life (numerator) among all live births (denominator) in a specific one-year period. Infant mortality rates are usually expressed as the number of deaths per 1000 live births.
 
RATIOA proportion obtained by dividing one quantity by another quantity. For example, eighteen family planning nurses (numerator) divided by six clinics (denominator) is a ratio of three nurses to one clinic.
 
READINESSActivities implemented prior to an incident that may be used to support and enhance mitigation of, response to, and recovery from disruptions. It is also often called “Preparedness”.
 
RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTA prearranged agreement between two or more entities to share resources in response to an incident.
 
RECORDA document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed.
 
RECOVERY POINT OBJECTIVE (RPO)The target set for the status and availability of data (electronic and paper) at the start of a recovery process. It is a point in time at which data or capacity of a process is in a known, valid state and can safely be restored from.
 
RECOVERY STRATEGIESAn approach by an organization that will ensure its recovery and continuity in the face of a disaster or other major outage. Plans and methodologies are determined by the organization’s strategy. There may be more than one methodology or solution for an organizational strategy. The techniques and tools used to describe, control and deliver a series of activities with given deliverables, time-frames and budgets.
 
RECOVERY STRATEGY - REDUCEActivities, tasks, programs and systems developed and implemented prior to an emergency that are used to support the prevention or mitigation of the consequences of a disaster. Activities to avoid an incident or to stop an emergency from occurring.
 
RECOVERY STRATEGY - RESPONSEImmediate and ongoing activities, tasks, programs and systems to manage the immediate effects of an incident that threatens life, property, operations or the environment. The reaction to an incident or emergency to assess the damage or impact and to ascertain the level of containment and control activity required.
 
RECOVERY STRATEGY - RETURNActivities and programs designed to return conditions to a level that is acceptable to the entity.
 
RECOVERY STRATEGY – RE-SYNCRe-Sync is part of IT DR and involves performing a full re-synchronization of the recovery catalogue. The term data synchronization is also often used.
 
RECOVERY TIME OBJECTIVE (RTO)The target time for resuming the delivery of a product or service to an acceptable level following its disruption.
 
RECURRENT COSTSSee Operating Costs
 
REFERRAL SYSTEMSAn established system that defines when a client should be referred to another facility for services (often for treating medical complications or providing clinical methods or surgical procedures), how the client will get to the clinic (for instance, whether an outreach worker will accompany the client to the clinic), who the client should contact at the referral site, and what documentation should be presented by or given to the client at the referral site. Effective referral systems help to expand access to services and long-term clinical methods and serve to enhance the quality of services provided by a smaller satellite clinic.
 
REGISTRATION FEESA fixed fee collected from clients at each visit regardless of the types of services provided.
 
REPORTING CHANNELSAn established system within a supervisory structure for reporting information and data. Appropriate reporting channels are critical, particularly as the provision of different types of services becomes more integrated and or program management becomes more decentralized.
 
REQUISITION AND ISSUE VOUCHERThe form used by the clinic manager to request new supplies, by the warehouse manager to fill the order and record the quantities sent, and again by the clinic manager to check that the clinic received the correct quantities and types of supplies ordered. More than simply an order form, this form summarizes the average monthly consumption of each contraceptive ordered, the clinic desired maximum quantity, and the quantity on hand at the time of the order, and therefore serves to justify the quantity ordered.
 
RESIDUAL RISKLevel of risk remaining after all cost-effective actions have been taken to lessen the impact, probability and consequences of a specific risk or group of risks, subject to an organization risk appetite.
 
RESILIENCEThe ability of an organization to resist being affected by an incident.
 
RESOURCE MANAGEMENTThe work of managing and controlling the limited resources needed to run a program such as people, money, and equipment. (Some people also consider time a resource.)
 
RESOURCESAssets, people, skills, information, technology (including plant and equipment), premises, and supplies and information (whether electronic or not) that an organization has to have available to use, when needed, in order to operate and meet its objectives.
 
REVENUE AND EXPENSE REPORTSee Income Statement
 
REVENUE REPORTA daily, monthly, or quarterly report of monies or the equivalent received from sales, services, or fees. In accrual systems, revenues are recorded when they are earned, not when the actual cash or goods are received.
 
REVISIT(also known as Follow-up Visit) A visit made by a client to a clinic often for the purposes of checking up on the client success or comfort with a contraceptive method or to address medical complications or side-effects. The term is also used to describe a visit for the re-supply of a contraceptive.
 
RISKCombination of the probability of an event and its consequence.
 
RISK ACCEPTANCEA management decision to take no action to mitigate the impact of a particular risk.
 
RISK ANALYSISThe quantification of threats to an organization and the probability of them being realised
 
RISK APPETITETotal amount of risk that an organization is prepared to accept, tolerate, or be exposed to at any point in time.
 
RISK ASSESSMENTA formal but often subjective process of risk identification, risk analysis, and risk evaluation.
 
RISK AVOIDANCEAn informed decision to not become involved in or to withdraw from a risk situation.
 
RISK CRITERIATerms of reference against which the significance of a risk is evaluated. Risk criteria are based on internal and external context, and are regularly reviewed to ensure continued relevance. Risk criteria can be derived from standards, laws and policies.
 
RISK MANAGEMENT (RM)The application of management policies to the identification, analysis, assessment, treatment and monitoring of risk.
 
RISK MITIGATIONImplementation of measures to deter specific threats to the continuity of business operations, and or respond to any occurrence of such threats in a timely and appropriate manner. Activities taken to reduce the severity or consequences of an emergency.
 
RISK REDUCTIONA selective application of appropriate techniques and management principles to reduce either probability of an occurrence or its impact, or both.
 
RISK TRANSFERENCERefers to the shifting of the burden of loss to another party through legislation, contract, insurance or other means. It can also refer to the shifting of a physical risk or part thereof elsewhere.
 
RISK TREATMENTSelection and implementation of measures to modify risk.
 
S CORPORATIONBusiness enterprise allowed by the IRS for most companies with 75 or fewer shareholders, enabling the company to enjoy the benefits of incorporation while being taxed as if it were a partnership.
 
SAFETYFreedom from danger, risk or injury.
 
SAFETY STOCKThe amount of stock (number of months supply) below the minimum level which serves as a cushion or buffer against major fluctuations in contraceptive demands or unexpected shipment delays.
 
SATELLITE SERVICESServices that are provided to a community or several communities at a specific time (usually once a month) and at a designated location. Satellite services often provide integrated health, maternal and child health, and family planning services. (See also Five-Table System.)
 
SELF-EVALUATION GUIDELINES(also known as Self-Assessment Tool or Checklist) Guidelines or a series of checklists that pose specific questions for evaluating the abilities of staff or the performance or functioning of a program.
 
SELF-SUFFICIENCYThe level of organizational development that is reached when the organization is able to function independently of outside (donor) assistance. Self-sufficient organizations are capable of mobilizing a wide range of resources to avoid dependence on a single financial resource and have the management and leadership capability to adapt their programs to a changing environment. (See also Sustainability.)
 
SERVICE DELIVERY APPROACHDesigned to reach and attract different client groups, service delivery approaches include community-based services, clinic-based services, employer-based services, hospital-based services, in-home or depot services, and community gatherings for information, education, communication (IEC) about family planning.
 
SERVICE FEESFees charged to a client for each service provided, such as counseling, examination, laboratory testing, and contraceptive supplies. Some programs set a standard charge for an initial visit and a revisit. An initial visit might include the cost of an examination, counseling, and a contraceptive method, whereas the revisit might cover the cost of a resupply of contraceptives and consultation.
 
SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT (SLA)An agreement between a service provider and a customer defining the scope, quality and timeliness of service delivery.
 
SERVICE MARKETPLACEThe target area or region that a program intends to reach in delivering its services to a population.
 
SERVICE QUALITYService quality refers to a number of inter-related factors including the way in which individuals are treated by providers, the scope of services and contraceptives available to clients, the quality of the information provided to the clients and quality of the counseling skills, the promotion of individual choice, the technical competence of providers, and the accessibility and continuity of services.
 
SERVICE STOPSDifferent stages or locations within a clinic where a client receives specific types of services. Service stops often include registering with the registration clerk, being weighed, having blood pressure taken, seeing a counselor, being examined by a nurse or doctor, and checking out at the registration desk.
 
SHELF LIFEThe length of time a contraceptive can be stored under normal circumstances without losing its efficacy. Poor storage conditions (such as extremes in temperature) can reduce the shelf life of a product.
 
SHORT-TERM METHODSContraceptive methods that remain effective for a relatively short period of time. Experts differ in the methods they include under this term. Some experts include only spermicides, diaphragms, and condoms; others also include oral contraceptive pills.
 
SIMULATIONSimulation is a process whereby recovery team members perform all of the actions they would take in the event of plan activation. It may involve one or more of the recovery teams and are performed under conditions that at least simulate a disaster. An instructional method used to teach problem solving, procedures or operations by placing learners in situations akin to reality.
 
SINGLE POINT OF FAILURE (SPOF)Unique (single) source or pathway of a service, activity and or process; typically there is no alternative, and loss of that element could lead to total failure of a mission critical activity and or dependency.
 
SITE TRAININGAn integrated approach to training that views the service-delivery site as a system and treats staff as members of the team that makes the system work. The goal of site training is to improve systems at a local site through effective teamwork and by ensuring that all members of the team have the knowledge and skills they need to fulfill their respective roles on the team.
 
SITUATION ANALYSISA systematic process for analyzing the internal environment and capabilities of an organization and the external political, social, economic, and programmatic environment in which a program works. Such an analysis is performed for the purposes of determining a course of action for improving program management, performance, and sustainability. (See also Assessments.)
 
SLIDING FEE SCALEA system of charging clients for services based on household income and family size, allowing clients to pay what they can afford.
 
SOCIAL MARKETINGA strategy modeled after commercial product marketing in which contraceptives and other products related to sexual and reproductive health are promoted, distributed, and sold at relatively low prices through existing commercial outlets. Social marketing advertises reproductive health and family planning to different segments of the population by using such commercial outlets as radio, newspaper advertisements, and television to provide family planning information, education, and communication.
 
SS 540Business Continuity Standard published by Singapore Standards Council.
 
STAFF DEVELOPMENTSee Professional Development
 
STAFF MOTIVATIONThe personnel activities of an organization or supervisor that are designed to reaffirm the importance of the staff jobs to the achievements of the program and to improve the skills, motivation, and qualifications of employees. Such actions or activities include training, positive and constructive feedback on a regular basis, appreciation for their work, and engaging them in problem solving.
 
STAFF RESPONSIBILITIESThe specific responsibilities or set of responsibilities of different staff positions for which staff can be held accountable. Such responsibilities can usually be quantified, such as providing counseling to an average number of clients over a specific period of time, or providing medical services to a district clinic three days a week.
 
STAFF ROLESThe broad responsibilities attached to different staff positions. For example, the roles of managers include leadership, understanding, problem solving, advice, and encouragement.
 
STAGES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENTThe four stages that characterize the development of an organization Emergence, Growth, Consolidation, and Mature. These stages are based on the principle that organizations develop in a systematic way over time and portray distinct characteristics during each stage in relation to mission, strategy, structure, and systems. (See Emergent Stage, Growth Stage, Consolidation Stage, and Mature Stage.)
 
STAKEHOLDERIndividual or group having an interest in the performance or success of an organization e.g., customers, partners, employees, shareholders, owners, the local community, first responders, government, and regulators. Someone with a vested interest in the successful completion or outcome of a project.
 
STAND DOWNA formal announcement that alert status is over and the plan will not be invoked any further.
 
STANDARD DEVIATIONA statistic used as a measure of the dispersion or variation in a distribution, equal to the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations from the arithmetic mean.
 
STANDARD ERRORStatistical estimate of possible size error present in a test score or other group measure.
 
STANDBY SERVICEAny alternative sites, facilities, equipment or resources that may be available for use following a disaster.
 
START-UP ORGANIZATIONUsually a small organization in the early years of its development. Many start-up organizations are characterized by highly creative leadership, highly innovative initiatives, and a small, highly committed and motivated staff.
 
STATUS OF SUPPLIES CHARTA worksheet for calculating the average monthly consumption (AMC) and the maximum and minimum stock quantities. The status of supplies chart allows managers to record on a single chart information about the desired minimum and maximum stock quantities for all types of contraceptives based on recent consumption patterns.
 
STOCK CARD(also known as Inventory Control Card or Bin Card) The form used to record all stock transactions (contraceptives received or dispensed) and the quantities of contraceptive currently in stock and on order. A separate stock card should be maintained for each type and brand of contraceptive.
 
STOCK ON HAND(also known as Balance on Hand) The quantity of each contraceptive or commodity in stock at any given time.
 
STOCK ON ORDERThe quantity of stock of each contraceptive that has been ordered but has not yet been received (by the clinic or facility).
 
STOCK OUTA situation in which a program or clinic runs out of supplies of one or more contraceptive methods (or other drug or equipment supplies) and does not have any supplies on hand to serve the client.
 
STOCK POSITIONThe number of months of supply that you have available at any given time for a single type and brand of contraceptive or commodity. The stock position is calculated by dividing the quantity of stock on hand by the average monthly consumption of that contraceptive or item.
 
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENTA way of managing the direction of a program by identifying the specific services that the organization is best suited to deliver and the population groups the organization can most effectively serve, and by making a realistic assessment of available resources for carrying out the work. Strategic management requires managers to think strategically, ask questions such as "Is the program doing the right things " and consider and anticipate trends in the external environment that will affect the achievement of organizational goals.
 
STRATEGIC PLANThe document that is the result of long-range (strategic) planning. It usually covers a minimum period of five years, sets forth the mission and goals of the program, prioritizes strategies, and formulates the financial basis for achieving the goals.
 
STRATEGIC PLANNINGThe process of identifying an organization long-term goals and objectives and then determining the best approach for achieving those goals and objectives.
 
STRATEGIC THINKINGA critical management skill that requires having the ability to assess a program in relation to its mission, its future goals, and the external environment in which it works. Strategic thinking requires managers to examine whether their programs are "doing the right things" in order to achieve their mission.
 
SUBSIDIZING PROGRAM COSTSSee Cross-Subsidization
 
SUPERVISOR VISIT PLAN(also known as a Session Plan) A statement or checklist used by supervisors that outlines the items, skills, and statistics to be monitored during each supervisory session. This plan should also include program support activities, such as collecting reporting forms and replenishing supplies, and any post-session activities to be completed by the supervisor.
 
SUPERVISORY PROTOCOLAn established system for supervising staff (clinical and non-clinical). A supervisory protocol should clearly describe supervisory procedures and schedules, organizational philosophy on supervision, tools for effective supervision (such as job descriptions and performance objectives), criteria for promotion, and techniques for motivating and supporting staff.
 
SUPERVISORY SCHEDULEA written plan of supervisory sessions showing the name of the employee involved and the date, time, and content of upcoming supervisory sessions. A supervisory schedule is used for planning purposes and for communicating to employees such upcoming supervisory activities.
 
SUPERVISORY STRUCTUREThe formal structure of reporting relationships between different functions and positions of the management and staff.
 
SUPPLY CHAINThe linked processes that begins with the acquisition of raw material and extends through the delivery of products or services to the end user across the modes of transport. The supply chain may include suppliers, vendors, manufacturing facilities, logistics providers, internal distribution centres, distributors, wholesalers, and other entities that lead to the end user.
 
SURVEY OF FAMILY PLANNING PROVIDERSA study of other family planning providers, usually those that work in the same area as the program conducting the study. The information is used to compare the types and quality of services offered by the other providers and to determine areas for coordination, referral, or new service opportunities.
 
SUSTAINABILITYThe ability of a program to provide quality services to its clients, expand its scope of services and client base, increase or maintain demand for services, and generate income from the program and through local funding mechanisms, while decreasing its dependence on funds derived from external donors. (See also Self-Sufficiency.)
 
SWOT ANALYSISA SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning tool used to collect and evaluate information on an organization current Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a specific project or business venture.
 
SYNDICATED SUBSCRIPTION SERVICEWork space shared by a limited number of organizations, configured for general occupation (not for a particular organization).
 
SYNDICATION RATIONumber of times that a work area is sold by the third party providers at a resource recovery location reduced allocation basis.
 
SYSTEMIC RISKPotential difficulties, such as failure of one participant or part of a process, system, industry or market to meet its obligations, that could cause other participants to not meet their obligations; this could cause liquidity and other problems, thereby threatening stability of the whole process, system, industry or market.
 
TABLE TOP EXERCISETechnique for rehearsing emergency teams in which participants review and discuss the actions they would take according to their plans, but do not perform any of these actions; can be conducted with a single team, or multiple teams, typically under the guidance of exercise facilitators.
 
TALLY SHEETA chart designed to easily collect and organize data. Tally sheets are used to list the types of data that will be collected and to record the number of occurrences or observations that are counted in each category.
 
TARGETDetailed performance requirement applicable to an organization that arises from the objectives and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve those objectives.
 
TARGET GROUPThe specific population group or groups intended as beneficiaries of a program. This will be either all or a subset of potential users such as adolescents, pregnant women, rural residents, or the residents of a particular geographic area.
 
TASK ANALYSISAn examination of all the duties and activities that are carried out by an individual employee or position, for the purpose of determining the required skills, knowledge, attitudes, resources, and risks involved with each task. Involves defining standards and conditions of a particular task and identifying the distinguishing factors between tasks.
 
TASK DEFINITIONThe duties and activities that are specified as the responsibility of a particular employee or staff position.
 
TEAM APPROACHA philosophy and a technique that relies on developing and working with a group of people with different skills and perspectives to identify and discuss issues, define causes of problems (or successes), and find and implement solutions in order to achieve a common goal.
 
TEAM SUPERVISION PROCESSAny established process for supervising staff using a participative, team approach that involves supervisors and staff in the entire process.
 
TESTAn activity that is performed to evaluate the effectiveness or capabilities of a plan relative to specified objectives or measurement criteria. Types of tests include Desk Check, Peer Review, Structured Walkthrough, Standalone Test, Integrated Test, and Operational Test.
 
TESTINGEvaluation of a resource to validate the achievement of objectives and aims.
 
THIRD-PARTY PAYMENTSA system whereby a third party (such as an employer, an insurance company, or health plan) pays for services provided to the client. There may also be co-payments, whereby the client pays part of the fees.
 
THREATA potential cause of an unwanted incident, which may result in harm to individuals, assets, a system or organization, the environment, or the community. Some threats such as bad weather are more commonly referred to as “Hazards”
 
TIME MANAGEMENTThe discipline of utilizing time efficiently and well in order to achieve professional, personal or organizational objectives.
 
TOP MANAGEMENTA person or group of people who directs and controls an organization at the highest level. In larger organizations this might be called the Board, Directors, Executives or Senior Managers. In a small organization, top management might be the owner or sole proprietor. Person or group of people who directs and controls an organization at the highest level.
 
TOTAL VISIT COSTThe cost of providing services for different types of visits (for example, first pill visit, IUD insertion visit, counseling visit), including direct personnel costs and contraceptive supplies, and a proportion of overhead costs. Used for comparing cost effectiveness and efficiency of services and in setting fees.
 
TRAININGTraining is more formal than awareness. It aims to build knowledge and skills to enhance competency in job performance. Whereas awareness is generally targeted at all staff, training is directed at staff with specific functions and responsibilities.
 
TWO-TIER INFORMATION SYSTEMAn information system that is designed to collect output information on a routine basis, and asks managers to also collect process information to help them determine where a problem may have occurred so that it can be corrected.
 
UNDERSERVED POPULATIONSGroups of people that are not normally served or not well-served by established service delivery programs. In family planning, some examples of underserved populations are adolescents, men, low-parity women, the urban poor, unmarried people, and people who live in remote rural areas.
 
UNIT COST (OF CONTRACEPTIVE PRODUCTS)The total cost of a single contraceptive product unit, such as a cycle of pills, a set of surgical gloves, a single condom, etc., including transport costs, customs, taxes, and other costs.
 
UNMET DEMAND OR UNMET NEEDThis term is used to describe the number of people or the percentage of the population who desire to use contraceptives to space or limit births but for a variety of reasons, including lack of access to information or services, are not currently using contraceptives.
 
URGENT ACTIVITYA term used to cover activities in support of Product and Services which needs to be done within a short timescale.
 
USER FEESSee Client Fees
 
VARIABLE ORDER INTERVAL SYSTEMSee Continuous (Perpetual) Review System
 
VERTICAL SERVICES APPROACHAn approach in which services, such as family planning, maternal and child health, nutrition, immunization, and other reproductive health services are provided through separate facilities with separate staff managed at the central level by separate divisions or ministries that operate independently from one another.
 
VIRTUAL BATTLE BOXAn electronic form of a storage location held on the internet, intranet or cloud so that data and information is immediately available post incident and accessible by the Incident Management Team.
 
VIRTUAL COMMAND CENTREA means of operating when it is physically impossible for members of the Incident Management Team to move to a Command Centre. A virtual command centre working using telephony and internet solutions including a Virtual Battle Box can be established.
 
VISIT-TYPEA individual type of visit made by a client to a clinic such as a first or initial visit, insertion visit, removal visit, resupply visit, complications visit, education or counseling visit, etc. Visit-types are usually defined for the purposes of determining the average cost of providing each type of service.
 
VITAL MATERIALSAny materials that are essential for recovery from a disaster or major incident.
 
VITAL RECORDSAny information, documents or data deemed essential for recovery from a disaster or major incident.
 
VOLUNTEER SERVICESAn approach used to support a local public- or private-sector program in which members of the community assist government workers, or fieldworkers employed by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), to carry out functions related to motivation, contraceptive resupply, and follow up. Workers may receive a small honorarium, reimbursement for travel expenses, or other tangible rewards but are not paid a regular wage.
 
VULNERABILITYThe degree to which a person, asset, process, information, infrastructure or other resources are exposed to the actions or effects of a risk, event or other occurrence.
 
WAIVERS WAIVER SYSTEMA system used to determine under what conditions a client will not be charged for services or when a portion of the client fee will be drawn from a reserve fund to pay part of the fee for the client. A waiver system uses a standard set of criteria to determine which clients are eligible for such financial support.
 
WALK-THROUGHA walk-through is a process whereby BC team members carry out the sequence of the recovery tasks defined in the BC plan. It is also called a Desktop or Tabletop Exercise.
 
WARM SITEA designated standby site equipped and serviced to a level which will allow the organization to resume essential operations before their non-availability threatens business viability.
 
WIDE AREA DISASTERA catastrophic event that impacts a large geographic area and requires emergency services (or even military) to take control.
 
WORK AREA RECOVERY (WAR)Restoration of office activities at an alternative location which provides desks, telephony, office systems and networking capability.
 
WORK PLANA document developed by the manager and the staff, covering a specified period of time, that lists all planned activities, the date by which they will be accomplished, the resources that they will require, and the people responsible for carrying them out.
 
WORK PROCESSThe process or sequence of activities that is carried out in order to complete a piece of work. For example, the work process for registering a client in a clinic might consist of greeting the client, taking his or her name, checking to see if the client is a new or returning client, opening a new client record and having the client fill out the necessary forms, or pulling the existing client record, collecting any registration fees (if appropriate), asking the client to be seated until she or he can be seen by a service provider, and notifying the service provider that the client is ready to be seen.
 
 
OHS
ACCEPTABLE RISKRisk that has been reduced to a level that can be tolerated by the organization having regard to its legal obligations and its own OH S Policy
 
ACCREDITED LABORATORYA laboratory that is licensed by the CDPH pursuant to Title 17 of the California Code of Regulations (CCR), or which has received a certification of competence based on participation in a quality assurance program administered by a governmental or private organization that tests and certifies laboratories.
 
AEROSOL TRANSMISSIBLE DISEASE (ATD) OR PATHOGEN (ATP)A disease or pathogen for which droplet or airborne precautions are required.
 
AEROSOL TRANSMISSIBLE PATHOGEN- LABORATORY (ATP-L)A pathogen that meets one of the following criteria (1) the pathogen appears on the list in Appendix D, (2) the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) recommends biosafety level 3 or above for the pathogen, (3) the biological safety officer recommends biosafety level 3 or above for the pathogen, or (4) the pathogen is a novel or unknown pathogen.
 
AIRBORNE INFECTION ISOLATION (AII)Infection control procedures as described in Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings. These procedures are designed to reduce the risk of transmission of airborne infectious pathogens, and apply to patients known or suspected to be infected with epidemiologically important pathogens that can be transmitted by the airborne route.
 
AIRBORNE INFECTION ISOLATION ROOM OR AREA (AIIR)A room, area, booth, tent, or other enclosure that is maintained at negative pressure to adjacent areas in order to control the spread of aerosolized M. tuberculosis and other airborne infectious pathogens and that meets a standard requirements.
 
AIRBORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASE (AIRID)Either (1) an aerosol transmissible disease transmitted through dissemination of airborne droplet nuclei, small particle aerosols, or dust particles containing the disease agent for which AII is recommended by the CDC or CDPH, or (2) the disease process caused by a novel or unknown pathogen for which there is no evidence to rule out with reasonable certainty the possibility that the pathogen is transmissible through dissemination of airborne droplet nuclei, small particle aerosols, or dust particles containing the novel or unknown pathogen.
 
AIRBORNE INFECTIOUS PATHOGEN (AIRIP)Either (1) an aerosol transmissible pathogen transmitted through dissemination of airborne droplet nuclei, small particle aerosols, or dust particles containing the infectious agent, and for which the CDC or CDPH recommends AII, or (2) a novel or unknown pathogen for which there is no evidence to rule out with reasonable certainty the possibility that it is transmissible through dissemination of airborne droplet nuclei, small particle aerosols, or dust particles containing the novel or unknown pathogen.
 
ARTICLEA manufactured item (1) Which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture; (2) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon it shape or design during end use; and (3) which does not release, or otherwise result in exposure to, a hazardous substance under normal conditions of use or in a reasonably foreseeable emergency resulting from workplace operations.
 
BIOLOGICAL SAFETY OFFICER(S)A person who is qualified by training and or experience to evaluate hazards associated with laboratory procedures involving ATPs-L, who is knowledgeable about the facility biosafety plan, and who is authorized by the employer to establish and implement effective control measures for laboratory biological hazards. 
 
BIOSAFETY IN MICROBIOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL LABORATORIES (BMBL)Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, which is hereby incorporated by reference for the purpose of establishing biosafety requirements in laboratories.
 
BIOSAFETY LEVEL 3Compliance with the criteria for laboratory practices, safety equipment, and facility design and construction recommended by the CDC in Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories for laboratories in which work is done with indigenous or exotic agents with a potential for aerosol transmission and which may cause serious or potentially lethal infection.
 
CAS NUMBERThe unique identification number assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service to specific chemical substances.
 
CASEEither of the following (1) A person who has been diagnosed by a health care provider who is lawfully authorized to diagnose, using clinical judgment or laboratory evidence, to have a particular disease or condition. (2) A person who is considered a case of a disease or condition that satisfies the most recent communicable disease surveillance case definitions established by the CDC and published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) or its supplements.
 
CDCUnited States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
 
CDPHCalifornia Department of Public Health and its predecessor, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS).
 
CHEMICAL NAMEThe scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify the substance for the purpose of conducting a hazard evaluation.
 
CHIEFThe Chief of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health of the Department of Industrial Relations, or his or her designated representative.
 
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDAny liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100o F (37.8o C), but below 200o F (93.3o C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200o F (93.3o C), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
 
COMMON NAMEAny designation or identification such as code name, code number, trade name, brand name or generic name used to identify a substance other than by its chemical name.
 
COMPRESSED GASCompressed gas means (A) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70o F (21.1o C); or (B) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130o F (54.4o C) regardless of the pressure at 70o F (21.1o C); or (C) A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100o F (37.8o C) as determined by ASTM D-323-72.
 
CONTAINERAny bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, tank truck, or the like that contains a hazardous substance. For purposes of this section, pipes or piping systems are not considered to be containers.
 
CONTROLLING HAZARDSSteps to correct the most significant hazards found.
 
CTCAThe California Tuberculosis Controllers Association.
 
DESIGNATED REPRESENTATIVEAny individual or organization to whom an employee gives written authorization to exercise such employee rights under this section. A recognized or certified collective bargaining agent shall be treated automatically as a designated representative without regard to written employee authorization.
 
DISTRIBUTORA business, other than a manufacturer or importer, which supplies hazardous substances to other distributors or to employers.
 
DIVISIONThe Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal OSHA), California Department of Industrial Relations, or designee.
 
DROPLET PRECAUTIONSInfection control procedures as described in Guideline for Isolation Precautions designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious agents through contact of the conjunctivae or the mucous membranes of the nose or mouth of a susceptible person with large-particle droplets (larger than 5 µm in size) containing microorganisms generated from a person who has a clinical disease or who is a carrier of the microorganism.
 
DRUG TREATMENT PROGRAMA program that is licensed of the Health and Safety Code.
 
EMERGENCYAny potential occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which may or does result in a release of a hazardous substance into the workplace.
 
EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN (EAP)Most businesses need to have one to meet local city or county requirements, or because a business work falls under other OSHA standards that do require EAP.
 
EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICESMedical care provided pursuant to Title 22, Division 9, by employees who are certified EMT-1, certified EMT-II, or licensed paramedic personnel to the sick and injured at the scene of an emergency, during transport, or during interfacility transfer.
 
EMPLOYEEEvery person who is required or directed by any employer, to engage in any employment, or to go to work or be at any time in any place of employment.
 
EMPLOYEREmployer means (A) The State and every State agency. (B) Each county, city, district, and all public and quasi-public corporations and public agencies therein. (C) Every person including any public service corporation, which has any natural person in service. (D) The legal representative of any deceased employer.
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF VACCINE-PREVENTABLE DISEASESEpidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atkinson W, Hamborsky J, McIntyre L, Wolfe S, eds. 10th ed. 2nd printing, including chapters from the 9th edition on Anthrax and Smallpox, Washington DC Public Health Foundation, 2008, which is hereby incorporated by reference.
 
EXPLOSIVEA substance that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.
 
EXPOSURE INCIDENTAn event in which all of the following have occurred (1) An employee has been exposed to an individual who is a case or suspected case of a reportable ATD, or to a work area or to equipment that is reasonably expected to contain ATPs associated with a reportable ATD; and (2) The exposure occurred without the benefit of applicable exposure controls required by this section, and (3) It reasonably appears from the circumstances of the exposure that transmission of disease is sufficiently likely to require medical evaluation.
 
EXPOSURE INCIDENT (LABORATORY)A significant exposure to an aerosol containing an ATP-L, without the benefit of applicable exposure control measures required by this section.
 
EXPOSURE OR EXPOSEDAny situation arising from work operation where an employee may ingest, inhale, absorb through the skin or eyes, or otherwise come into contact with a hazardous substance.
 
FIELD OPERATIONAn operation conducted by employees that is outside of the employer fixed establishment, such as paramedic and emergency medical services or transport, law enforcement, home health care, and public health.
 
FLAMMABLEA substance that falls into one of the following categories (A) Aerosol, flammable. An aerosol that, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.45, yields a flame projection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve opening; (B) Gas, flammable 1. A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of thirteen (13) percent of volume or less; or2. A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than twelve (12) percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit; (C) Liquid, flammable. Any liquid having a flashpoint below 100o F (37.8o C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100o F (37.8o C) or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture. (D) Solid, flammable. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in section 5237(a), that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered to be a flammable solid if, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis.
 
FLASHPOINTThe minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite when tested as follows (A) Tagliabue Closed Tester (see American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester, Z11.24-1979 (ASTM D 56-79)) for liquids with a viscosity of less than 45 Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) at 100o F (37.8o C), that do not have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or (B) Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (see American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester, Z11.7-1979 (ASTM D 93-79)) for liquids with a viscosity equal to or greater than 45 SUS at 100o F (37.8o C), or that have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or (C) Setaflash Closed Tester (see American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Setaflash Closed Tester (ASTM D 3278-78)). Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods specified above.
 
GUIDELINE FOR ISOLATION PRECAUTIONSThe Guideline for Isolation Precautions Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings, June 2007, CDC, which is hereby incorporated by reference for the sole purpose of establishing requirements for droplet and contact precautions.
 
GUIDELINES FOR PREVENTING THE TRANSMISSION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN HEALTH-CARE SETTINGSThe Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, December 2005, CDC, which is hereby incorporated by reference for the sole purpose of establishing requirements for airborne infection isolation.
 
HAZARD COMMUNICATIONTo describe in writing the elements of the workplace’s hazard communication program and how the workplace will comply with this OSHA standard
 
HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONProcess of recognizing that a hazard exists and defining its characteristics
 
HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONUse any necessary tool to identify key hazards in the workplace.
 
HAZARD MAPPINGMark on the floor plan where the hazards identified is are located by labeling each hazard.
 
HAZARD WARNINGAny words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof appearing on a label or other appropriate form of warning which convey the health hazards and physical hazards of the substance(s) in the container(s).
 
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCEAny substance which is a physical hazard or a health hazard or is included in the List of Hazardous Substances prepared by the Director pursuant to Labor Code section 6382.
 
HEALTH CARE PROVIDERA physician and surgeon, a veterinarian, a podiatrist, a nurse practitioner, a physician assistant, a registered nurse, a nurse midwife, a school nurse, an infection control practitioner, a medical examiner, a coroner, or a dentist.
 
HEALTH CARE WORKERA person who works in a health care facility, service or operation, or who has occupational exposure in a public health service.
 
HEALTH HAZARDA substance for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term “health hazard” includes substances which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. Appendix A provides further definitions and explanations of the scope of health hazards covered by this section, and Appendix B describes the criteria to be used to determine whether or not a substance is to be considered hazardous for purposes of this standard.
 
HIGH HAZARD PROCEDURESProcedures performed on a person who is a case or suspected case of an aerosol transmissible disease or on a specimen suspected of containing an ATP-L, in which the potential for being exposed to aerosol transmissible pathogens is increased due to the reasonably anticipated generation of aerosolized pathogens. Such procedures include, but are not limited to, sputum induction, bronchoscopy, aerosolized administration of pentamidine or other medications, and pulmonary function testing. High Hazard Procedures also include, but are not limited to, autopsy, clinical, surgical and laboratory procedures that may aerosolize pathogens.
 
IDENTITYAny chemical or common name which is indicated on the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for the substance. The identity used shall permit crossreferences to be made among the required list of hazardous substances, the label and the MSDS.
 
ILL HEALTHIdentifiable, adverse physical or mental condition arising from and or made worse by a work activity and or work-related situation
 
IMMEDIATE USEThe hazardous substance will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.
 
IMPORTERThe first business with employees within the Customs Territory of the United States which receives hazardous substances produced in other countries for the purpose of supplying them to distributors or purchasers within the United States.
 
INDIVIDUALLY IDENTIFIABLE MEDICAL INFORMATIONMedical information that includes or contains any element of personal identifying information sufficient to allow identification of the individual, such as the patient name, address, electronic mail address, telephone number, or social security number, or other information that, alone or in combination with other publicly available information, reveals the individual identity.
 
INFECTION CONTROL PLHCPA PLHCP who is knowledgeable about infection control practices, including routes of transmission, isolation precautions and the investigation of exposure incidents.
 
INITIAL TREATMENTTreatment provided at the time of the first contact a health care provider has with a person who is potentially an AirID case or suspected case. Initial treatment does not include high hazard procedures.
 
LABELAny written, printed, or graphic material displayed on or affixed to containers of hazardous substances.
 
LABORATORYA facility or operation in a facility where the manipulation of specimens or microorganisms is performed for the purpose of diagnosing disease or identifying disease agents, conducting research or experimentation on microorganisms, replicating microorganisms for distribution or related support activities for these processes. 
 
LATENT TB INFECTION (LTBI)Infection with M. tuberculosis in which bacteria are present in the body, but are inactive. Persons who have LTBI but who do not have TB disease are asymptomatic, do not feel sick and cannot spread TB to other persons. They typically react positively to TB tests.
 
LOCAL HEALTH OFFICERThe health officer for the local jurisdiction responsible for receiving and or sending reports of communicable diseases, as defined in Title 17, CCR. Note Title 17, Section 2500 requires that reports be made to the local health officer for the jurisdiction where the patient resides.
 
M. TUBERCULOSISMycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, and M. microti. M. tuberculosis is the scientific name of the group of bacteria that cause tuberculosis.
 
MANUFACTURERA person who produces, synthesizes, extracts, or otherwise makes a hazardous substance.
 
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS)Written or printed material concerning a hazardous substance.
 
MEDICAL SPECIALTY PRACTICEA medical practice other than primary care, general practice, or family medicine.
 
MIXTUREAny solution or intimate admixture of two or more substances, at least one of which is present as a hazardous substance, which do not react chemically with each other.
 
NEGATIVE PRESSUREA relative air pressure difference between two areas. The pressure in a containment room or area that is under negative pressure is lower than adjacent areas, which keeps air from flowing out of the containment facility and into adjacent rooms or areas.
 
NIOSHThe National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
 
NON-MEDICAL TRANSPORTThe transportation by employees other than health care providers or emergency medical personnel during which no medical services are reasonably anticipated to be provided.
 
NOVEL OR UNKNOWN ATPA pathogen capable of causing serious human disease meeting the following criteria (1) There is credible evidence that the pathogen is transmissible to humans by aerosols; and (2) The disease agent is (a) A newly recognized pathogen, or (b) A newly recognized variant of a known pathogen and there is reason to believe that the variant differs significantly from the known pathogen in virulence or transmissibility, or (c) A recognized pathogen that has been recently introduced into the human population, or  (d) A not yet identified pathogen. Note Variants of the human influenza virus that typically occur from season to season are not considered novel or unknown ATPs if they do not differ significantly in virulence or transmissibility from existing seasonal variants. Pandemic influenza strains that have not been fully characterized are novel pathogens.
 
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSUREExposure from work activity or working conditions that is reasonably anticipated to create an elevated risk of contracting any disease caused by ATPs or ATPs-L if protective measures are not in place. In this context, “elevated" means higher than what is considered ordinary for employees having direct contact with the general public outside of the facilities, service categories and operations listed in subsection (a)(1) of this standard.  Occupational exposure is presumed to exist to some extent in each of the facilities, services and operations listed in subsection (a)(1)(A) through (a)(1)(I). Whether a particular employee has occupational exposure depends on the tasks, activities, and environment of the employee, and therefore, some employees of a covered employer may have no occupational exposure.  For example, occupational exposure typically does not exist where a hospital employee works only in an office environment separated from patient care facilities, or works only in other areas separate from those where the risk of ATD transmission, whether from patients or contaminated items, would be elevated without protective measures. It is the task of employers covered by this standard to identify those employees who have occupational exposure so that appropriate protective measures can be implemented to protect them as required.  Employee activities that involve having contact with, or being within exposure range of cases or suspected cases of ATD, are always considered to cause occupational exposure. Similarly, employee activities that involve contact with, or routinely being within exposure range of, populations served by facilities identified in subsection (a)(1)(E) are considered to cause occupational exposure. Employees working in laboratory areas in which ATPs-L are handled or reasonably anticipated to be present are also considered to have occupational exposure.
 
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETYConditions and Factors that affect, or could affect, the health and safety of employees or other workers (including temporary workers and contractor personnel), visitors, or any other person in the workplace
 
OH S MANAGEMENT SYSTEMPart of the organization management system used to develop and implement its OH S Policy and manage its OH S risks
 
OH S OBJECTIVEOH S goal, in terms of OH S Performance, that an organization sets itself to achieve. Objectives should be quantified wherever practicable.
 
OH S PERFORMANCEMeasurable results of an organization management of its OH S risks. (including measuring the effectiveness of the organization control)
 
OH S POLICYOverall intentions and direction of an organization related to its OH S Performance as formally expressed by top management. It consist of framework for action and for the setting of OH S objectives
 
ORGANIC PEROXIDEAn organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical.
 
OXIDIZERA substance other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in section 5237(a), that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.
 
PHYSICAL HAZARDA substance for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive.
 
PHYSICIAN OR OTHER LICENSED HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONAL (PLHCP)An individual whose legally permitted scope or practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the health care services required by this section.
 
PRODUCETo manufacture, process, formulate, repackage, or relabel.
 
PYROPHORICA substance that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130o F (54.4o C) or below.
 
REFERRALThe directing or transferring of a possible ATD case to another facility, service or operation for the purposes of transport, diagnosis, treatment, isolation, housing or care.
 
REFERRING EMPLOYERAny employer that operates a facility, service, or operation in which there is occupational exposure and which refers AirID cases and suspected cases to other facilities. Referring facilities, services and operations do not provide diagnosis, treatment, transport, housing, isolation or management to persons requiring AII. General acute care hospitals are not referring employers. Law enforcement, corrections, public health, and other operations that provide only non-medical transport for referred cases are considered referring employers if they do not provide diagnosis, treatment, housing, isolation or management of referred cases.
 
REPORTABLE AEROSOL TRANSMISSIBLE DISEASE (RATD)A disease or condition which a health care provider is required to report to the local health officer, in accordance with Title 17 CCR, Division 1, Chapter 4, and which meets the definition of an aerosol transmissible disease (ATD).
 
RESPIRATORA device which has met the requirements of 42 CFR Part 84, has been designed to protect the wearer from inhalation of harmful atmospheres, and has been approved by NIOSH. for the purpose for which it is used.
 
RESPIRATOR USERAn employee who in the scope of their current job may be assigned to tasks which may require the use of a respirator.
 
RESPIRATORY HYGIENE COUGH ETIQUETTE IN HEALTH CARE SETTINGSRespiratory Hygiene Cough Etiquette in Health Care Settings, CDC, November 4, 2004, which is hereby incorporated by reference for the sole purpose of establishing requirements for source control procedures.
 
RESPONSIBLE PARTYSomeone who can provide additional information on the hazardous substance and appropriate emergency procedures, if necessary.
 
RISKCombination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure(s) and the severity of injury or ill health that can be caused by the event or exposure(s)
 
SCREENING (HEALTH CARE PROVIDER)The initial assessment of persons who are potentially AirID or ATD cases by a health care provider in order to determine whether they need airborne infection isolation or need to be referred for further medical evaluation or treatment to make that determination. Screening does not include high hazard procedures.
 
SCREENING (NON HEALTH CARE PROVIDER)The identification of potential ATD cases through readily observable signs and the self-report of patients or clients. Screening does not include high hazard procedures. 
 
SHMSStands for Safety and Health Management System.
 
SIGNIFICANT EXPOSUREAn exposure to a source of ATPs or ATPs-L in which the circumstances of the exposure make the transmission of a disease sufficiently likely that the employee requires further evaluation by a PLHCP.
 
SOURCE CONTROL MEASURESThe use of procedures, engineering controls, and other devices or materials to minimize the spread of airborne particles and droplets from an individual who has or exhibits signs or symptoms of having an ATD, such as persistent coughing.
 
SPECIFIC CHEMICAL IDENTITYThe chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any other information that reveals the precise chemical designation of the substance.
 
SUBSTANCEAny element, chemical compound or mixture of elements and or compounds.
 
SURGEA rapid expansion beyond normal services to meet the increased demand for qualified personnel, medical care, equipment, and public health services in the event of an epidemic, public health emergency, or disaster.
 
SUSCEPTIBLE PERSONA person who is at risk of acquiring an infection due to a lack of immunity as determined by a PLHCP in accordance with applicable public health guidelines.
 
SUSPECTED CASEEither of the following (1) A person whom a health care provider believes, after weighing signs, symptoms, and or laboratory evidence, to probably have a particular disease or condition. (2) A person who is considered a probable case, or an epidemiologically-linked case, or who has supportive laboratory findings under the most recent communicable disease surveillance case definition established by CDC and published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) or its supplements as applied to a particular disease or condition.
 
TB CONVERSIONA change from negative to positive as indicated by TB test results, based upon current CDC or CDPH guidelines for interpretation of the TB test.
 
TEST FOR TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION (TB TEST)Any test, including the tuberculin skin test and blood assays for M. Tuberculosis (BAMT) such as interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) which (1) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the purposes of detecting tuberculosis infection, and (2) is recommended by the CDC for testing for TB infection in the environment in which it is used, and (3) is administered, performed, analyzed and evaluated in accordance with those approvals and guidelines.  Note Where surveillance for LTBI is required by Title 22, CCR, the TB test must be approved for this use by the CDPH.
 
TRADE SECRETAny confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information, or compilation of information which gives its user an opportunity to obtain a business advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. A trade secret shall not include chemical identity information which is readily discoverable through qualitative analysis. Appendix D sets out the criteria to be used in evaluating trade secrets.
 
TUBERCULOSIS (TB)A disease caused by M. tuberculosis.
 
UNSTABLE (REACTIVE)A substance which in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure or temperature.
 
USETo package, handle, react, or transfer.
 
UVGIUltraviolet germicidal irradiation.
 
WATER-REACTIVEA substance that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.
 
WORK AREAA room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous substances are produced or used, and where employees are present.
 
WORKPLACEAny physical location in which work related activities are performed under the control of an organization including personnel who are travelling, transit, working at the premises of a client or customer or working at home
 
 
OHSMS
AUDIT(ISO45001:2018- 3.32)- systematic, independent and documented process (3.25) for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled. Note 1 to entry: An audit can be an internal audit (first party) or an external audit (second party or third party), and it can be a combined audit (combining two or more disciplines). Note 2 to entry: An internal audit is conducted by the organization (3.1) itself, or by an external party on its behalf. Note 3 to entry: Audit evidence and audit criteria are defined in ISO 19011. Note 4 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
COMPETENCE(ISO45001:2018- 3.23)- ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results. Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
CONFORMITY(ISO45001:2018- 3.33)- fulfilment of a requirement (3.8). Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
CONSULTATION(ISO45001:2018- 3.5)- seeking views before making a decision. Note 1 to entry: Consultation includes engaging health and safety committees and workers representatives, where they exist.
 
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT(ISO45001:2018- 3.37)- recurring activity to enhance performance (3.27). Note 1 to entry: Enhancing performance relates to the use of the OH&S management system (3.11) in order to achieve improvement in overall OH&S performance (3.28) consistent with the OH&S policy (3.15) and OH&S objectives (3.17). Note 2 to entry: Continual does not mean continuous, so the activity does not need to take place in all areas simultaneously. Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. Note 1 to entry has been added to clarify the meaning of performance in the context of an OH&S management system; Note 2 to entry has been added to clarify the meaning of continual.
 
CONTRACTOR(ISO45001:2018- 3.7)- external organization (3.1) providing services to the organization in accordance with agreed specifications, terms and conditions. Note 1 to entry: Services may include construction activities, among others.
 
CORRECTIVE ACTION(ISO45001:2018- 3.36)- action to eliminate the cause(s) of a nonconformity (3.34) or an incident (3.35) and to prevent recurrence. Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The definition has been modified to include reference to incident, as incidents are a key factor in occupational health and safety, yet the activities needed for resolving them are the same as for nonconformities, through corrective action.
 
DOCUMENTED INFORMATION(ISO45001:2018- 3.24)- information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1) and the medium on which it is contained. Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media, and from any source. Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to: a) the management system (3.10), including related processes (3.25); b) information created in order for the organization to operate (documentation); c) evidence of results achieved (records). Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
EFFECTIVENESS(ISO45001:2018- 3.13)- extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved. Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
HAZARD(ISO45001:2018- 3.19)- source with a potential to cause injury and ill health (3.18). Note 1 to entry: Hazards can include sources with the potential to cause harm or hazardous situations, or circumstances with the potential for exposure leading to injury and ill health.
 
INCIDENT(ISO45001:2018- 3.35)- occurrence arising out of, or in the course of, work that could or does result in injury and ill health (3.18). Note 1 to entry: An incident where injury and ill health occurs is sometimes referred to as an accident. Note 2 to entry: An incident where no injury and ill health occurs, but has the potential to do so, may be referred to as a near-miss, near-hit or close call. Note 3 to entry: Although there can be one or more nonconformities (3.34) related to an incident, an incident can also occur where there is no nonconformity.
 
INJURY AND ILL HEALTH(ISO45001:2018- 3.18)- adverse effect on the physical, mental or cognitive condition of a person. Note 1 to entry: These adverse effects include occupational disease, illness and death. Note 2 to entry: The term injury and ill health implies the presence of injury or ill health, either on their own orin combination.
 
INTERESTED PARTY(ISO45001:2018- 3.2) Or stakeholder (admitted term)- person or organization (3.1) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or activity. Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS(ISO45001:2018- 3.9)- legal requirements that an organization (3.1) has to comply with and other requirements (3.8) that an organization has to or chooses to comply with. Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, legal requirements and other requirements are those relevant to the OH&S management system (3.11). Note 2 to entry: Legal requirements and other requirements include the provisions in collective agreements. Note 3 to entry: Legal requirements and other requirements include those that determine the persons who are workers (3.3) representatives in accordance with laws, regulations, collective agreements and practices.
 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(ISO45001:2018- 3.10)- set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1) to establish policies (3.14) and objectives (3.16) and processes (3.25) to achieve those objectives. Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines. Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organizations structure, roles and responsibilities, planning, operation, performance evaluation and improvement. Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system may include the whole of the organization, specific and identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more functions across a group of organizations. Note 4 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. Note 2 to entry has been modified to clarify some of the wider elements of a management system.
 
MEASUREMENT(ISO45001:2018- 3.31)- process (3.25) to determine a value. Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
MONITORING(ISO45001:2018- 3.30)- determining the status of a system, a process (3.25) or an activity. Note 1 to entry: To determine the status, there may be a need to check, supervise or critically observe. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
NONCONFORMITY(ISO45001:2018- 3.34)- non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.8). Note 1 to entry: Nonconformity relates to requirements in this document and additional OH&S management system (3.11) requirements that an organization (3.1) establishes for itself. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. Note 1 to entry has been added to clarify the relationship of nonconformities to the requirements of this document and to the organizations own requirements for its OH&S management system.
 
OBJECTIVE(ISO45001:2018- 3.16)- result to be achieved. Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational. Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product and process (3.25)). Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an operational criterion, as an OH&S objective (3.17), or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal, or target). Note 4 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original Note 4 to entry has been deleted as the term OH&S objective has been defined separately in 3.17.
 
OH&S MS(ISO45001:2018- 3.11)- management system (3.10) or part of a management system used to achieve the OH&S policy (3.15). Note 1 to entry: The intended outcomes of the OH&S management system are to prevent injury and ill health (3.18) to workers (3.3) and to provide safe and healthy workplaces (3.6). Note 2 to entry: The terms occupational health and safety (OH&S) and occupational safety and health (OSH) have the same meaning.
 
OH&S OBJECTIVE(ISO45001:2018- 3.17)- objective (3.16) set by the organization (3.1) to achieve specific results consistent with the OH&S policy (3.15)
 
OH&S OPPORTUNITY(ISO45001:2018- 3.22)- circumstance or set of circumstances that can lead to improvement of OH&S performance (3.28)
 
OH&S PERFORMANCE(ISO45001:2018- 3.28)- performance (3.27) related to the effectiveness (3.13) of the prevention of injury and ill health (3.18) to workers (3.3) and the provision of safe and healthy workplaces (3.6)
 
OH&S POLICY(ISO45001:2018- 3.15)- policy (3.14) to prevent work-related injury and ill health (3.18) to workers (3.3) and to provide safe and healthy workplaces (3.6)
 
OH&S RISK(ISO45001:2018- 3.21)- combination of the likelihood of occurrence of a work-related hazardous event(s) or exposure(s) and the severity of injury and ill health (3.18) that can be caused by the event(s) or exposure(s)
 
ORGANIZATION(ISO45001:2018-3.1)- person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives (3.16). Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to sole-trader, company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
OUTSOURCE(ISO45001:2018- 3.29)- (verb) make an arrangement where an external organization (3.1) performs part of an organizations function or process (3.25). Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system (3.10), although the outsourced function or process is within the scope. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
PARTICIPATION(ISO45001:2018- 3.4)-involvement in decision-making. Note 1 to entry: Participation includes engaging health and safety committees and workers representatives, where they exist.
 
PERFORMANCE(ISO45001:2018- 3.27)- measurable result. Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings. Results can be determined and evaluated by qualitative or quantitative methods. Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes (3.25), products (including services), systems or organizations (3.1). Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. Note 1 to entry has been modified to clarify the types of methods that may be used for determining and evaluating results.
 
POLICY(ISO45001:2018- 3.14)- intentions and direction of an organization (3.1), as formally expressed by its top management (3.12). Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
PROCEDURE(ISO45001:2018- 3.26)- specified way to carry out an activity or a process (3.25). Note 1 to entry: Procedures may be documented or not. [SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.4.5, modified Note 1 to entry has been modified.]
 
PROCESS(ISO45001:2018- 3.25)- set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs. Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
REQUIREMENT(ISO45001:2018- 3.8)- need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory. Note 1 to entry: Generally implied means that it is custom or common practice for the organization (3.1) and interested parties (3.2) that the need or expectation under consideration is implied. Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information (3.24). Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
RISK(ISO45001:2018- 3.20)- effect of uncertainty. Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected positive or negative. Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood. Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential events (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.5.1.3) and consequences (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.3), or a combination of these. Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated likelihood (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.1) of occurrence. Note 5 to entry: In this document, where the term risks and opportunities is used this means OH&S risks (3.21), OH&S opportunities (3.22) and other risks and other opportunities for the management system. Note 6 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. Note 5 to entry has been added to clarify the term risks and opportunities for its use within this document.
 
TOP MANAGEMENT-(ISO45001:2018- 3.12)- person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1) at the highest level. Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the organization, provided ultimate responsibility for the OH&S management system (3.11) is retained. Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system (3.10) covers only part of an organization, then top management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization. Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. Note 1 to entry has been modified to clarify the responsibility of top management in relation to an OH&S management system.
 
WORKER(ISO45001:2018- 3.3)- person performing work or work-related activities that are under the control of the organization (3.1). Note 1 to entry: Persons perform work or work-related activities under various arrangements, paid or unpaid, such as regularly or temporarily, intermittently or seasonally, casually or on a part-time basis. Note 2 to entry: Workers include top management (3.12), managerial and non-managerial persons. Note 3 to entry: The work or work-related activities performed under the control of the organization may be performed by workers employed by the organization, workers of external providers, contractors, individuals, agency workers, and by other persons to the extent the organization shares control over their work or workrelated activities, according to the context of the organization.
 
WORKPLACE(ISO45001:2018- 3.6)- place under the control of the organization (3.1) where a person needs to be or to go for work purposes. Note 1 to entry: The organizations responsibilities under the OH&S management system (3.11) for the workplace depend on the degree of control over the workplace.
 
 
QMS
ACTIVITY(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.11)- smallest identified object of work in a project (3.4.2). [SOURCE: ISO 10006:2003, 3.1, modified]
 
ASSOCIATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.8)- organization (3.2.1) consisting of member organizations or persons [SOURCE: ISO 10003:2007, 3.1]
 
AUDIT(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.1)- systematic, independent and documented process (3.4.1) for obtaining objective evidence (3.8.3) and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria (3.13.7) are fulfilled. Note 1 to entry: The fundamental elements of an audit include the determination (3.11.1) of the conformity (3.6.11) of an object (3.6.1) according to a procedure (3.4.5) carried out by personnel not being responsible for the object audited. Note 2 to entry: An audit can be an internal audit (first party), or an external audit (second party or third party), and it can be a combined audit (3.13.2) or a joint audit (3.13.3). Note 3 to entry: Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits, are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization (3.2.1) itself for management (3.3.3) review (3.11.2) and other internal purposes, and can form the basis for an organizations declaration of conformity. Independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited. Note 4 to entry: External audits include those generally called second and third-party audits. Second party audits are conducted by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers (3.2.4), or by other persons on their behalf. Third-party audits are conducted by external, independent auditing organizations such as those providing certification/registration of conformity or governmental agencies. Note 5 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition and Notes to entry have been modified to remove effect of circularity between audit criteria and audit evidence term entries, and Notes 3 and 4 to entry have been added.
 
AUDIT CLIENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.11)- organization (3.2.1) or person requesting an audit (3.13.1). [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.6, modified Note to entry has been deleted]
 
AUDIT CONCLUSION(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.10)- outcome of an audit (3.13.1), after consideration of the audit objectives and all audit findings (3.13.9). [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.5]
 
AUDIT CRITERIA(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.7)- set of policies (3.5.8), procedures (3.4.5) or requirements (3.6.4) used as a reference against which objective evidence (3.8.3) is compared [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.2, modified The term audit evidence has been replaced by objective evidence]
 
AUDIT EVIDENCE(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.8)- records, statements of fact or other information, which are relevant to the audit criteria (3.13.7) and verifiable. [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.3, modified Note to entry has been deleted]
 
AUDIT FINDINGS(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.9)- results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence (3.13.8) against audit criteria (3.13.7). Note 1 to entry: Audit findings indicate conformity (3.6.11) or nonconformity (3.6.9). Note 2 to entry: Audit findings can lead to the identification of opportunities for improvement (3.3.1) or recording good practices. Note 3 to entry: In English, if the audit criteria (3.13.7) are selected from statutory requirements (3.6.6) or regulatory requirements (3.6.7), the audit finding can be called compliance or non-compliance. [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.4, modified Note 3 to entry has been modified]
 
AUDIT PLAN(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.6)- description of the activities and arrangements for an audit (3.13.1). [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.15]
 
AUDIT PROGRAMME(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.4)- set of one or more audits (3.13.1) planned for a specific time frame and directed towards a specific purpose. [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.13, modified]
 
AUDIT SCOPE(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.5)- extent and boundaries of an audit (3.13.1). Note 1 to entry: The audit scope generally includes a description of the physical locations, organizational units, activities and processes (3.4.1). [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.14, modified Note to entry has been modified]
 
AUDIT TEAM(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.14)- one or more persons conducting an audit (3.13.1), supported if needed by technical experts (3.13.16) Note 1 to entry: One auditor (3.13.15) of the audit team is appointed as the audit team leader. Note 2 to entry: The audit team can include auditors-in-training. [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.9, modified]
 
AUDITEE(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.12)- organization (3.2.1) being audited. [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.7]
 
AUDITOR(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.15)- person who conducts an audit (3.13.1). [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.8]
 
CAPABILITY(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.12)- ability of an object (3.6.1) to realize an output (3.7.5) that will fulfil the requirements (3.6.4) for that output. Note 1 to entry: Process (3.4.1) capability terms in the field of statistics are defined in ISO 3534-2.
 
CHANGE CONTROL(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.10)- activities for control of the output (3.7.5) after formal approval of its product configuration information (3.6.8). [SOURCE: ISO 10007:2003, 3.1, modified]
 
CHARACTERISTIC(ISO9000:2015- 3.10.1)- distinguishing feature. Note 1 to entry: A characteristic can be inherent or assigned. Note 2 to entry: A characteristic can be qualitative or quantitative. Note 3 to entry: There are various classes of characteristic, such as the following: a) physical (e.g. mechanical, electrical, chemical or biological characteristics); b) sensory (e.g. related to smell, touch, taste, sight, hearing); c) behavioural (e.g. courtesy, honesty, veracity); d) temporal (e.g. punctuality, reliability, availability, continuity); e) ergonomic (e.g. physiological characteristic, or related to human safety); f) functional (e.g. maximum speed of an aircraft).
 
COMBINED AUDIT(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.2)- audit (3.13.1) carried out together at a single auditee (3.13.12) on two or more management systems (3.5.3). Note 1 to entry: The parts of a management system that can be involved in a combined audit can be identified by the relevant management system standards, product standards, service standards or process standards being applied by the organization (3.2.1).
 
COMPETENCE(ISO9000:2015- 3.10.4)- ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results. Note 1 to entry: Demonstrated competence is sometimes referred to as qualification. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding Note 1 to entry.
 
COMPETENCE ACQUISITION(ISO9000:2015- 3.4.4)- process (3.4.1) of attaining competence (3.10.4). [SOURCE: ISO 10018:2012, 3.2, modified]
 
COMPLAINT(ISO9000:2015- 3.9.3)- expression of dissatisfaction made to an organization (3.2.1), related to its product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7), or the complaints-handling process (3.4.1) itself, where a response or resolution is explicitly or implicitly expected. [SOURCE: ISO 10002:2014, 3.2, modified The term service has been included in the definition]
 
CONCESSION(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.5)- permission to use or release (3.12.7) a product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) that does not conform to specified equirements (3.6.4). Note 1 to entry: A concession is generally limited to the delivery of products and services that have nonconforming (3.6.9) characteristics (3.10.1) within specified limits and is generally given for a limited quantity of products and services or period of time, and for a specific use.
 
CONFIGURATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.10.6)- interrelated functional and physical characteristics (3.10.1) of a product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) defined in product configuration information (3.6.8). [SOURCE: ISO 10007:2003, 3.3, modified The term service has been included in the definition]
 
CONFIGURATION AUTHORITY(ISO9000:2015- 3.1.5)- configuration control board dispositioning authority person or a group of persons with assigned responsibility and authority to make decisions on the configuration (3.10.6). Note 1 to entry: Relevant interested parties (3.2.3) within and outside the organization (3.2.1) should be represented on the configuration authority. [SOURCE: ISO 10007:2003, 3.8, modified]
 
CONFIGURATION BASELINE(ISO9000:2015- 3.10.7)- approved product configuration information (3.6.8) that establishes the characteristics (3.10.1) of a product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) at a point in time that serves as reference for activities throughout the life cycle of the product or service. [SOURCE: ISO 10007:2003, 3.4, modified The term service has been included in the definition]
 
CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.9)- coordinated activities to direct and control configuration (3.10.6). Note 1 to entry: Configuration management generally concentrates on technical and organizational activities that establish and maintain control of a product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) and its product configuration information (3.6.8) throughout the life cycle of the product. [SOURCE: ISO 10007:2003, 3.6, modified Note 1 to entry has been modified]
 
CONFIGURATION OBJECT(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.13)- object (3.6.1) within a configuration (3.10.6) that satisfies an end-use function. [SOURCE: ISO 10007:2003, 3.5, modified]
 
CONFIGURATION STATUS ACCOUNTING(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.14)- formalized recording and reporting of product configuration information (3.6.8), the status of proposed changes and the status of the implementation of approved changes. [SOURCE: ISO 10007:2003, 3.7]
 
CONFORMITY(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.11)- fulfilment of a requirement (3.6.4). Note 1 to entry: In English the word conformance is synonymous but deprecated. In French the word compliance is synonymous but deprecated. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding Note 1 to entry.
 
CONTEXT OF THE ORGANIZATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.2)- combination of internal and external issues that can have an effect on an organizations (3.2.1) approach to developing and achieving its objectives (3.7.1). Note 1 to entry: The organizations objectives can be related to its products (3.7.6) and services (3.7.7), investments and behaviour towards its interested parties (3.2.3). Note 2 to entry: The concept of context of the organization is equally applicable to not-for-profit or public service organizations as it is to those seeking profits. Note 3 to entry: In English, this concept is often referred to by other terms such as business environment, organizational environment or ecosystem of an organization. Note 4 to entry: Understanding the infrastructure (3.5.2) can help to define the context of the organization.
 
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.2)- recurring activity to enhance performance (3.7.8). Note 1 to entry: The process (3.4.1) of establishing objectives (3.7.1) and finding opportunities for improvement (3.3.1) is a continual process through the use of audit findings (3.13.9) and audit conclusions (3.13.10), analysis of data (3.8.1), management (3.3.3) reviews (3.11.2) or other means and generally leads to corrective action (3.12.2) or preventive action (3.12.1). Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding Note 1 to entry.
 
CONTRACT(ISO9000:2015- 3.4.7)- binding agreement
 
CORRECTION(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.3)- action to eliminate a detected nonconformity (3.6.9). Note 1 to entry: A correction can be made in advance of, in conjunction with or after a corrective action (3.12.2). Note 2 to entry: A correction can be, for example, rework (3.12.8) or regrade (3.12.4).
 
CORRECTIVE ACTION(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.2)- action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity (3.6.9) and to prevent recurrence. Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity. Note 2 to entry: Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action (3.12.1) is taken to prevent occurrence. Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding Notes 1 and 2 to entry.
 
CUSTOMER(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.4)- person or organization (3.2.1) that could or does receive a product (3.7.6) or a service (3.7.7) that is intended for or required by this person or organization. EXAMPLE Consumer, client, end-user, retailer, receiver of product or service from an internal process (3.4.1), beneficiary and purchaser. Note 1 to entry: A customer can be internal or external to the organization.
 
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION(ISO9000:2015- 3.9.2)- customers (3.2.4) perception of the degree to which the customers expectations have been fulfilled. Note 1 to entry: It can be that the customers expectation is not known to the organization (3.2.1), or even to the customer in question, until the product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) is delivered. It can be necessary for achieving high customer satisfaction to fulfil an expectation of a customer even if it is neither stated nor generally implied or obligatory. Note 2 to entry: Complaints (3.9.3) are a common indicator of low customer satisfaction but their absence does not necessarily imply high customer satisfaction. Note 3 to entry: Even when customer requirements (3.6.4) have been agreed with the customer and fulfilled, this does not necessarily ensure high customer satisfaction. [SOURCE: ISO 10004:2012, 3.3, modified Notes have been modified]
 
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION CODE OF CONDUCT(ISO9000:2015- 3.9.5)- promises, made to customers (3.2.4) by an organization (3.2.1) concerning its behaviour, that are aimed at enhanced customer satisfaction (3.9.2) and related provisions. Note 1 to entry: Related provisions can include objectives (3.7.1), conditions, limitations, contact information (3.8.2), and complaints (3.9.3) handling procedures (3.4.5). Note 2 to entry: In ISO 10001:2007, the term code is used instead of customer satisfaction code of conduct. [SOURCE: ISO 10001:2007, 3.1, modified The term code has been removed as an admitted term, and Note 2 to entry has been modified]
 
CUSTOMER SERVICE(ISO9000:2015- 3.9.4)- interaction of the organization (3.2.1) with the customer (3.2.4) throughout the life cycle of a product (3.7.6) or a service (3.7.7). [SOURCE: ISO 10002:2014, 3.5, modified The term service has been included in the definition]
 
DATA(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.1)- facts about an object (3.6.1)
 
DEFECT(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.10)- nonconformity (3.6.9) related to an intended or specified use. Note 1 to entry: The distinction between the concepts defect and nonconformity is important as it has legal connotations, particularly those associated with product (3.7.6) and service (3.7.7) liability issues. Note 2 to entry: The intended use as intended by the customer (3.2.4) can be affected by the nature of the information (3.8.2), such as operating or maintenance instructions, provided by the provider (3.2.5).
 
DEPENDABILITY(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.14)- ability to perform as and when required. [SOURCE: IEC 60050?192, modified Notes have been deleted]
 
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.4.8)- set of processes (3.4.1) that transform requirements (3.6.4) for an object (3.6.1) into more detailed requirements for that object Note 1 to entry: The requirements forming input to design and development are often the result of research and can be expressed in a broader, more general sense than the requirements forming the output (3.7.5) of design and development. The requirements are generally defined in terms of characteristics (3.10.1). In a project (3.4.2) there can be several design and development stages. Note 2 to entry: In English the words design and development and the term design and development are sometimes used synonymously and sometimes used to define different stages of the overall design and development. In French the words conception and dveloppement and the term conception et dveloppement are sometimes used synonymously and sometimes used to define different stages of the overall design and development. Note 3 to entry: A qualifier can be applied to indicate the nature of what is being designed and developed (e.g. product (3.7.6) design and development, service (3.7.7) design and development or process design and development).
 
DETERMINATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.1)- activity to find out one or more characteristics (3.10.1) and their characteristic values
 
DEVIATION PERMIT(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.6)- permission to depart from the originally specified requirements (3.6.4) of a product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) prior to its realization. Note 1 to entry: A deviation permit is generally given for a limited quantity of products and services or period of ime, and for a specific use.
 
DISPUTE(ISO9000:2015- 3.9.6)- disagreement, arising from a complaint (3.9.3), submitted to a DRP-provider (3.2.7). Note 1 to entry: Some organizations (3.2.1) allow their customers (3.2.4) to express their dissatisfaction to a DRPprovider in the first instance. In this situation, the expression of dissatisfaction becomes a complaint when sent to the organization for a response, and becomes a dispute if not resolved by the organization without DRP-provider intervention. Many organizations prefer their customers to first express any dissatisfaction to the organization before utilizing dispute resolution external to the organization. [SOURCE: ISO 10003:2007, 3.6, modified]
 
DISPUTE RESOLVER(ISO9000:2015- 3.1.6)- individual person assigned by a DRP-provider (3.2.7) to assist the parties in resolving a dispute (3.9.6). EXAMPLE Staff, volunteer, contract (3.4.7) personnel. [SOURCE: ISO 10003:2007, 3.7, modified]
 
DOCUMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.5)- information (3.8.2) and the medium on which it is contained. EXAMPLE Record (3.8.10), specification (3.8.7), procedure document, drawing, report, standard. Note 1 to entry: The medium can be paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc, photograph or master sample, or combination thereof. Note 2 to entry: A set of documents, for example specifications and records, is frequently called documentation. Note 3 to entry: Some requirements (3.6.4) (e.g. the requirement to be readable) relate to all types of documents. However there can be different requirements for specifications (e.g. the requirement to be revision controlled) and for records (e.g. the requirement to be retrievable).
 
DOCUMENTED INFORMATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.6)- information (3.8.2) required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.2.1) and the medium on which it is contained. Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media and from any source. Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to: the management system (3.5.3), including related processes (3.4.1); information created in order for the organization to operate (documentation); evidence of results achieved (records (3.8.10)). Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
DRP-PROVIDER(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.7)- dispute resolution process provider- person or organization (3.2.1) that supplies and operates an external dispute (3.9.6) resolution process (3.4.1). Note 1 to entry: Generally, a DRP-provider is a legal entity, separate from the organization or person as an individual and the complainant. In this way, the attributes of independence and fairness are emphasized. In some situations, a separate unit is established within the organization to handle unresolved complaints (3.9.3). Note 2 to entry: The DRP-provider contracts (3.4.7) with the parties to provide dispute resolution, and is accountable for performance (3.7.8). The DRP-provider supplies dispute resolvers (3.1.6). The DRP-provider also utilizes support, executive and other managerial staff to supply financial resources, clerical support, scheduling assistance, training, meeting rooms, supervision and similar functions. Note 3 to entry: DRP-providers can take many forms including not-for-profit, for-profit and public entities. An association (3.2.8) can also be a DRP-provider. Note 4 to entry: In ISO 10003:2007 instead of the term DRP-provider, the term provider is used. [SOURCE: ISO 10003:2007, 3.9, modified]
 
EFFECTIVENESS(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.11)- extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results are achieved. Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding are before achieved.
 
EFFICIENCY(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.10)- relationship between the result achieved and the resources used
 
ENGAGEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.1.4)- involvement (3.1.3) in, and contribution to, activities to achieve shared objectives (3.7.1)
 
EXTERNAL PROVIDER(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.6)- external supplier- provider (3.2.5) that is not part of the organization (3.2.1). EXAMPLE Producer, distributor, retailer or vendor of a product (3.7.6) or a service (3.7.7)
 
FEEDBACK(ISO9000:2015- 3.9.1)- opinions, comments and expressions of interest in a product (3.7.6), a service (3.7.7) or a complaints-handling process (3.4.1). [SOURCE: ISO 10002:2014, 3.6, modified The term service has been included in the definition]
 
GRADE(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.3)- category or rank given to different requirements (3.6.4) for an object (3.6.1) having the same functional use. EXAMPLE Class of airline ticket and category of hotel in a hotel brochure. Note 1 to entry: When establishing a quality requirement (3.6.5), the grade is generally specified.
 
GUIDE(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.13)- person appointed by the auditee (3.13.12) to assist the audit team (3.13.14). [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.12]
 
HUMAN FACTOR(ISO9000:2015- 3.10.3)- characteristic (3.10.1) of a person having an impact on an object (3.6.1) under consideration. Note 1 to entry: Characteristics can be physical, cognitive or social. Note 2 to entry: Human factors can have a significant impact on a management system (3.5.3).
 
IMPROVEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.1)- activity to enhance performance (3.7.8). Note 1 to entry: The activity can be recurring or singular.
 
INFORMATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.2)- meaningful data (3.8.1)
 
INFORMATION SYSTEM(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.4)- network of communication channels used within an organization (3.2.1)
 
INFRASTRUCTURE(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.2)- system (3.5.1) of facilities, equipment and services (3.7.7) needed for the operation of an organization (3.2.1)
 
INNOVATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.15)- new or changed object (3.6.1) realizing or redistributing value. Note 1 to entry: Activities resulting in innovation are generally managed. Note 2 to entry: Innovation is generally significant in its effect.
 
INSPECTION(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.7)- determination (3.11.1) of conformity (3.6.11) to specified requirements (3.6.4). Note 1 to entry: If the result of an inspection shows conformity, it can be used for purposes of verification (3.8.12). Note 2 to entry: The result of an inspection can show conformity or nonconformity (3.6.9) or a degree of conformity.
 
INTERESTED PARTY(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.3)- stakeholder -person or organization (3.2.1) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or activity. EXAMPLE Customers (3.2.4), owners, people in an organization, providers (3.2.5), bankers, regulators, unions, partners or society that can include competitors or opposing pressure groups. Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding the Example.
 
INVOLVEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.1.3)- taking part in an activity, event or situation
 
JOINT AUDIT(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.3)- audit (3.13.1) carried out at a single auditee (3.13.12) by two or more auditing organizations (3.2.1)
 
MANAGEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.3)- coordinated activities to direct and control an organization (3.2.1). Note 1 to entry: Management can include establishing policies (3.5.8) and objectives (3.7.1), and processes (3.4.1) to achieve these objectives. 2 to entry: The word management sometimes refers to people, i.e. a person or group of people with authority and responsibility for the conduct and control of an organization. When management is used in this sense, it should always be used with some form of qualifier to avoid confusion with the concept of management as a set of activities defined above. For example, management shall is deprecated whereas top management (3.1.1) shall is acceptable. Otherwise different words should be adopted to convey the concept when related to people, e.g. managerial or managers.
 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.3)- set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.2.1) to establish policies (3.5.8) and objectives (3.7.1), and processes (3.4.1) to achieve those objectives. Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines, e.g. quality management (3.3.4), financial management or environmental management. Note 2 to entry: The management system elements establish the organizations structure, roles and responsibilities, planning, operation, policies, practices, rules, beliefs, objectives and processes to achieve those objectives. Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system can include the whole of the organization, specific and identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more functions across a group of organizations. Note 4 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by modifying Notes 1 to 3 to entry.
 
MEASUREMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.4)- process (3.4.1) to determine a value. Note 1 to entry: According to ISO 3534-2, the value determined is generally the value of a quantity. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding Note 1 to entry.
 
MEASUREMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.7)- set of interrelated or interacting elements necessary to achieve metrological confirmation (3.5.6) and control of measurement processes (3.11.5). [SOURCE: ISO 10012:2003, 3.1, modified]
 
MEASUREMENT PROCESS(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.5)- set of operations to determine the value of a quantity
 
MEASURING EQUIPMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.6)- measuring instrument, software, measurement standard, reference material or auxiliary apparatus or combination thereof necessary to realize a measurement process (3.11.5)
 
METROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC(ISO9000:2015- 3.10.5)- characteristic (3.10.1) which can influence the results of measurement (3.11.4). Note 1 to entry: Measuring equipment (3.11.6) usually has several metrological characteristics. Note 2 to entry: Metrological characteristics can be the subject of calibration.
 
METROLOGICAL CONFIRMATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.6)- set of operations required to ensure that measuring equipment (3.11.6) conforms to the requirements (3.6.4) for its intended use. Note 1 to entry: Metrological confirmation generally includes calibration or verification (3.8.12), any necessary adjustment or repair (3.12.9), and subsequent recalibration, comparison with the metrological requirements for the intended use of the equipment, as well as any required sealing and labelling. Note 2 to entry: Metrological confirmation is not achieved until and unless the fitness of the measuring equipment for the intended use has been demonstrated and documented. Note 3 to entry: The requirements for intended use include such considerations as range, resolution and maximum permissible errors. Note 4 to entry: Metrological requirements are usually distinct from, and are not specified in, product (3.7.6) requirements. [SOURCE: ISO 10012:2003, 3.5, modified Note 1 to entry has been modified]
 
METROLOGICAL FUNCTION(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.9)- functional unit with administrative and technical responsibility for defining and implementing the measurement management system (3.5.7). [SOURCE: ISO 10012:2003, 3.6, modified]
 
MISSION(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.11)- organizations (3.2.1) purpose for existing as expressed by top management (3.1.1)
 
MONITORING(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.3)- determining (3.11.1) the status of a system (3.5.1), a process (3.4.1), a product (3.7.6), a service (3.7.7), or an activity. Note 1 to entry: For the determination of the status there can be a need to check, supervise or critically observe. Note 2 to entry: Monitoring is generally a determination of the status of an object (3.6.1), carried out at different stages or at different times. Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition and Note 1 to entry have been modified, and Note 2 to entry has been added.
 
NONCONFORMITY(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.9)- non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.6.4). Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
OBJECT(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.1)- entity, item; anything perceivable or conceivable. EXAMPLE Product (3.7.6), service (3.7.7), process (3.4.1), person, organization (3.2.1), system (3.5.1), resource. Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. an engine, a sheet of paper, a diamond), non-material (e.g. conversion ratio, a project plan) or imagined (e.g. the future state of the organization). [SOURCE: ISO 1087?1:2000, 3.1.1, modified]
 
OBJECTIVE(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.1)- result to be achieved. Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational. Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental objectives) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization (3.2.1)-wide, project (3.4.2), product (3.7.6) and process (3.4.1)). Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an operational criterion, as a quality objective (3.7.2) or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal, or target). Note 4 to entry: In the context of quality management systems (3.5.4) quality objectives (3.7.2) are set by the organization (3.2.1), consistent with the quality policy (3.5.9), to achieve specific results. Note 5 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by modifying Note 2 to entry.
 
OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.3)- data (3.8.1) supporting the existence or verity of something. Note 1 to entry: Objective evidence can be obtained through observation, measurement (3.11.4), test (3.11.8), or by other means. Note 2 to entry: Objective evidence for the purpose of audit (3.13.1) generally consists of records (3.8.10), statements of fact or other information (3.8.2) which are relevant to the audit criteria (3.13.7) and verifiable.
 
OBSERVER(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.17)- person who accompanies the audit team (3.13.14) but does not act as an auditor (3.13.15). Note 1 to entry: An observer can be a member of the auditee (3.13.12), a regulator or other interested party (3.2.3) who witnesses the audit (3.13.1). [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.11, modified The verb audit has been removed from the definition; Note to entry has been modified]
 
ORGANIZATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.1)- person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives (3.7.1). Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to, sole-trader, company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, association (3.2.8), charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by modifying Note 1 to entry.
 
OUTPUT(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.5)- result of a process (3.4.1). Note 1 to entry: Whether an output of the organization (3.2.1) is a product (3.7.6) or a service (3.7.7) depends on the preponderance of the characteristics (3.10.1) involved, e.g. a painting for sale in a gallery is a product whereas supply of a commissioned painting is a service, a hamburger bought in a retail store is a product whereas receiving an order and serving a hamburger ordered in a restaurant is part of a service.
 
OUTSOURCE (VERB)(ISO9000:2015- 3.4.6)- make an arrangement where an external organization (3.2.1) performs part of an organizations function or process (3.4.1). Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system (3.5.3), although the outsourced function or process is within the scope. Note 2 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
PERFORMANCE(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.8)- measurable result. Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings. Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management (3.3.3) of activities (3.3.11), processes (3.4.1), products (3.7.6), services (3.7.7), systems (3.5.1) or organizations (3.2.1). Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by modifying Note 2 to entry.
 
POLICY(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.8)- intentions and direction of an organization (3.2.1) as formally expressed by its top management (3.1.1) Note 1 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
PREVENTIVE ACTION(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.1)- action to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity (3.6.9) or other potential undesirable situation. Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one cause for a potential nonconformity. Note 2 to entry: Preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence whereas corrective action (3.12.2) is taken to prevent recurrence.
 
PROCEDURE(ISO9000:2015- 3.4.5)- specified way to carry out an activity or a process (3.4.1). Note 1 to entry: Procedures can be documented or not.
 
PROCESS(ISO9000:2015- 3.4.1)- set of interrelated or interacting activities that use inputs to deliver an intended result Note 1 to entry: Whether the intended result of a process is called output (3.7.5), product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) depends on the context of the reference. Note 2 to entry: Inputs to a process are generally the outputs of other processes and outputs of a process are generally the inputs to other processes. Note 3 to entry: Two or more interrelated and interacting processes in series can also be referred to as a process. Note 4 to entry: Processes in an organization (3.2.1) are generally planned and carried out under controlled conditions to add value. Note 5 to entry: A process where the conformity (3.6.11) of the resulting output cannot be readily or economically validated is frequently referred to as a special process. Note 6 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified to prevent circularity between process and output, and Notes 1 to 5 to entry have been added.
 
PRODUCT(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.6)- output (3.7.5) of an organization (3.2.1) that can be produced without any transaction taking place between the organization and the customer (3.2.4). Note 1 to entry: Production of a product is achieved without any transaction necessarily taking place between provider (3.2.5) and customer, but can often involve this service (3.7.7) element upon its delivery to the customer. Note 2 to entry: The dominant element of a product is that it is generally tangible. Note 3 to entry: Hardware is tangible and its amount is a countable characteristic (3.10.1) (e.g. tyres). Processed materials are tangible and their amount is a continuous characteristic (e.g. fuel and soft drinks). Hardware and processed materials are often referred to as goods. Software consists of information (3.8.2) regardless of delivery medium (e.g. computer programme, mobile phone app, instruction manual, dictionary content, musical composition copyright, drivers license).
 
PRODUCT CONFIGURATION INFORMATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.8)- requirement (3.6.4) or other information for product (3.7.6) design, realization, verification (3.8.12), operation and support. [SOURCE: ISO 10007:2003, 3.9, modified]
 
PROGRESS EVALUATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.9)- assessment of progress made on achievement of the project (3.4.2) objectives (3.7.1). Note 1 to entry: This assessment should be carried out at appropriate points in the project life cycle across project processes (3.4.1), based on criteria for project processes and product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7). Note 2 to entry: The results of progress evaluations can lead to revision of the project management plan (3.8.11). [SOURCE: ISO 10006:2003, 3.4, modified Notes to entry have been modified]
 
PROJECT(ISO9000:2015- 3.4.2)- unique process (3.4.1), consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective (3.7.1) conforming to specific requirements (3.6.4), including the constraints of time, cost and resources. Note 1 to entry: An individual project can form part of a larger project structure and generally has a defined start and finish date. Note 2 to entry: In some projects the objectives and scope are updated and the product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) characteristics (3.10.1) defined progressively as the project proceeds. Note 3 to entry: The output (3.7.5) of a project can be one or several units of product or service. Note 4 to entry: The projects organization (3.2.1) is normally temporary and established for the lifetime of the project. Note 5 to entry: The complexity of the interactions among project activities is not necessarily related to the project size. [SOURCE: ISO 10006:2003, 3.5, modified Notes 1 to 3 have been modified]
 
PROJECT MANAGEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.12)- planning, organizing, monitoring (3.11.3), controlling and reporting of all aspects of a project (3.4.2), and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives. [SOURCE: ISO 10006:2003, 3.6]
 
PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.11)- document (3.8.5) specifying what is necessary to meet the objective(s) (3.7.1) of the project (3.4.2). Note 1 to entry: A project management plan should include or refer to the projects quality plan (3.8.9). Note 2 to entry: The project management plan also includes or references such other plans as those relating to organizational structures, resources, schedule, budget, risk (3.7.9) management (3.3.3), environmental management, health and safety management, and security management, as appropriate. [SOURCE: ISO 10006:2003, 3.7]
 
PROVIDER(ISO9000:2015- 3.2.5)- supplier- organization (3.2.1) that provides a product (3.7.6) or a service (3.7.7). EXAMPLE Producer, distributor, retailer or vendor of a product or a service. Note 1 to entry: A provider can be internal or external to the organization. Note 2 to entry: In a contractual situation, a provider is sometimes called contractor.
 
QUALITY(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.2)- degree to which a set of inherent characteristics (3.10.1) of an object (3.6.1) fulfils requirements (3.6.4) Note 1 to entry: The term quality can be used with adjectives such as poor, good or excellent. Note 2 to entry: Inherent, as opposed to assigned, means existing in the object (3.6.1).
 
QUALITY ASSURANCE(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.6)- part of quality management (3.3.4) focused on providing confidence that quality requirements (3.6.5) will be fulfilled
 
QUALITY CHARACTERISTIC(ISO9000:2015- 3.10.2)- inherent characteristic (3.10.1) of an object (3.6.1) related to a requirement (3.6.4). Note 1 to entry: Inherent means existing in something, especially as a permanent characteristic. Note 2 to entry: A characteristic assigned to an object (e.g. the price of an object) is not a quality characteristic of that object.
 
QUALITY CONTROL(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.7)- part of quality management (3.3.4) focused on fulfilling quality requirements (3.6.5)
 
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.8)- part of quality management (3.3.4) focused on increasing the ability to fulfil quality requirements (3.6.5). Note 1 to entry: The quality requirements can be related to any aspect such as effectiveness (3.7.11), efficiency (3.7.10) or traceability (3.6.13).
 
QUALITY MANAGEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.4)- management (3.3.3) with regard to quality (3.6.2). Note 1 to entry: Quality management can include establishing quality policies (3.5.9) and quality objectives (3.7.2), and processes (3.4.1) to achieve these quality objectives through quality planning (3.3.5), quality assurance (3.3.6), quality control (3.3.7), and quality improvement (3.3.8).
 
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.4)- part of a management system (3.5.3) with regard to quality (3.6.2)
 
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CONSULTANT(ISO9000:2015- 3.1.2)- person who assists the organization (3.2.1) on quality management system realization (3.4.3), giving advice or information (3.8.2). Note 1 to entry: The quality management system consultant can also assist in realizing parts of a quality management system (3.5.4). Note 2 to entry: ISO 10019:2005 provides guidance on how to distinguish a competent quality management system consultant from one who is not competent. [SOURCE: ISO 10019:2005, 3.2, modified]
 
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM REALIZATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.4.3)- process (3.4.1) of establishing, documenting, implementing, maintaining and continually improving a quality management system (3.5.4). [SOURCE: ISO 10019:2005, 3.1, modified Notes have been deleted]
 
QUALITY MANUAL(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.8)- specification (3.8.7) for the quality management system (3.5.4) of an organization (3.2.1). Note 1 to entry: Quality manuals can vary in detail and format to suit the size and complexity of an individual organization (3.2.1).
 
QUALITY OBJECTIVE(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.2)- objective (3.7.1) related to quality (3.6.2). Note 1 to entry: Quality objectives are generally based on the organizations (3.2.1) quality policy (3.5.9). Note 2 to entry: Quality objectives are generally specified for relevant functions, levels and processes (3.4.1) in the organization (3.2.1).
 
QUALITY PLAN(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.9)- specification (3.8.7) of the procedures (3.4.5) and associated resources to be applied when and by whom to a specific object (3.6.1). Note 1 to entry: These procedures generally include those referring to quality management (3.3.4) processes (3.4.1) and to product (3.7.6) and service (3.7.7) realization processes. Note 2 to entry: A quality plan often makes reference to parts of the quality manual (3.8.8) or to procedure documents (3.8.5). Note 3 to entry: A quality plan is generally one of the results of quality planning (3.3.5).
 
QUALITY PLANNING(ISO9000:2015- 3.3.5)- part of quality management (3.3.4) focused on setting quality objectives (3.7.2) and specifying necessary operational processes (3.4.1), and related resources to achieve the quality objectives. Note 1 to entry: Establishing quality plans (3.8.9) can be part of quality planning.
 
QUALITY POLICY(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.9)- policy (3.5.8) related to quality (3.6.2). Note 1 to entry: Generally the quality policy is consistent with the overall policy of the organization (3.2.1), can be aligned with the organizations vision (3.5.10) and mission (3.5.11) and provides a framework for the setting of quality objectives (3.7.2). Note 2 to entry: Quality management principles presented in this International Standard can form a basis for the establishment of a quality policy.
 
QUALITY REQUIREMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.5)- requirement (3.6.4) related to quality (3.6.2)
 
RECORD(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.10)- document (3.8.5) stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed. Note 1 to entry: Records can be used, for example, to formalize traceability (3.6.13) and to provide evidence of verification (3.8.12), preventive action (3.12.1) and corrective action (3.12.2). Note 2 to entry: Generally records need not be under revision control.
 
REGRADE(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.4)- alteration of the grade (3.6.3) of a nonconforming (3.6.9) product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) in order to make it conform to requirements (3.6.4) differing from the initial requirements
 
REGULATORY REQUIREMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.7)- obligatory requirement (3.6.4) specified by an authority mandated by a legislative body
 
RELEASE(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.7)- permission to proceed to the next stage of a process (3.4.1) or the next process. Note 1 to entry: In English, in the context of software and documents (3.8.5), the word release is frequently used to refer to a version of the software or the document itself.
 
REPAIR(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.9)- action on a nonconforming (3.6.9) product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) to make it acceptable for the intended use. Note 1 to entry: A successful repair of a nonconforming product or service does not necessarily make the product or service conform to the requirements (3.6.4). It can be that in conjunction with a repair a concession (3.12.5) is required. Note 2 to entry: Repair includes remedial action taken on a previously conforming product or service to restore it for use, for example as part of maintenance. Note 3 to entry: Repair can affect or change parts of the nonconforming product or service.
 
REQUIREMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.4)- need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory. Note 1 to entry: Generally implied means that it is custom or common practice for the organization (3.2.1) and interested parties (3.2.3) that the need or expectation under consideration is implied. Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information (3.8.6). Note 3 to entry: A qualifier can be used to denote a specific type of requirement, e.g. product (3.7.6) requirement, quality management (3.3.4) requirement, customer (3.2.4) requirement, quality requirement (3.6.5). Note 4 to entry: Requirements can be generated by different interested parties or by the organization itself. Note 5 to entry: It can be necessary for achieving high customer satisfaction (3.9.2) to fulfil an expectation of a customer even if it is neither stated nor generally implied or obligatory. Note 6 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding Notes 3 to 5 to entry.
 
REVIEW(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.2)- determination (3.11.1) of the suitability, adequacy or effectiveness (3.7.11) of an object (3.6.1) to achieve established objectives (3.7.1). EXAMPLE Management review, design and development (3.4.8) review, review of customer (3.2.4) requirements (3.6.4), review of corrective action (3.12.2) and peer review. Note 1 to entry: Review can also include the determination of efficiency (3.7.10).
 
REWORK(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.8)- action on a nonconforming (3.6.9) product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) to make it conform to the requirements (3.6.4). Note 1 to entry: Rework can affect or change parts of the nonconforming product or service.
 
RISK(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.9)- effect of uncertainty. Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected positive or negative. Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information (3.8.2) related to, understanding or knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood. Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential events (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.5.1.3) and consequences (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.3), or a combination of these. Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated likelihood (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.1) of occurrence. Note 5 to entry: The word risk is sometimes used when there is the possibility of only negative consequences. Note 6 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original definition has been modified by adding Note 5 to entry.
 
SCRAP(ISO9000:2015- 3.12.10)- action on a nonconforming (3.6.9) product (3.7.6) or service (3.7.7) to preclude its originally intended use. EXAMPLE Recycling, destruction. Note 1 to entry: In a nonconforming service situation, use is precluded by discontinuing the service.
 
SERVICE(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.7)- output (3.7.5) of an organization (3.2.1) with at least one activity necessarily performed between the organization and the customer (3.2.4). Note 1 to entry: The dominant elements of a service are generally intangible. Note 2 to entry: Service often involves activities at the interface with the customer to establish customer requirements (3.6.4) as well as upon delivery of the service and can involve a continuing relationship such as banks, accountancies or public organizations, e.g. schools or hospitals. Note 3 to entry: Provision of a service can involve, for example, the following: an activity performed on a customer-supplied tangible product (3.7.6) (e.g. a car to be repaired); an activity performed on a customer-supplied intangible product (e.g. the income statement needed to prepare a tax return); the delivery of an intangible product (e.g. the delivery of information (3.8.2) in the context of knowledge transmission); the creation of ambience for the customer (e.g. in hotels and restaurants); Note 4 to entry: A service is generally experienced by the customer.
 
SPECIFIC CASE(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.15)- subject of the quality plan (3.8.9). Note 1 to entry: This term is used to avoid repetition of process (3.4.1), product (3.7.6), project (3.4.2) or contract (3.4.7) within ISO 10005. [SOURCE: ISO 10005:2005, 3.10, modified Note 1 to entry has been modified]
 
SPECIFICATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.7)- document (3.8.5) stating requirements (3.6.4). EXAMPLE Quality manual (3.8.8), quality plan (3.8.9), technical drawing, procedure document, work instruction. Note 1 to entry: A specification can be related to activities (e.g. procedure document, process (3.4.1) specification and test (3.11.8) specification), or products (3.7.6) (e.g. product specification, performance (3.7.8) specification and drawing). Note 2 to entry: It can be that, by stating requirements, a specification additionally is stating results achieved by design and development (3.4.8) and thus in some cases can be used as a record (3.8.10).
 
STATUTORY REQUIREMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.6)- obligatory requirement (3.6.4) specified by a legislative body
 
STRATEGY(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.12)- plan to achieve a long-term or overall objective (3.7.1)
 
SUCCESS(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.3)- achievement of an objective (3.7.1). Note 1 to entry: The success of an organization (3.2.1) emphasizes the need for a balance between its economic or financial interests and the needs of its interested parties (3.2.3), such as customers (3.2.4), users, investors/shareholders (owners), people in the organization, providers (3.2.5), partners, interest groups and communities.
 
SUSTAINED SUCCESS(ISO9000:2015- 3.7.4)- success (3.7.3) over a period of time. Note 1 to entry: Sustained success emphasizes the need for a balance between economic-financial interests of an organization (3.2.1) and those of the social and ecological environment. Note 2 to entry: Sustained success relates to the interested parties (3.2.3) of an organization, such as customers (3.2.4), owners, people in an organization, providers (3.2.5), bankers, unions, partners or society.
 
SYSTEM(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.1)- set of interrelated or interacting elements
 
TECHNICAL EXPERT(ISO9000:2015- 3.13.16)- person who provides specific knowledge or expertise to the audit team (3.13.14). Note 1 to entry: Specific knowledge or expertise relates to the organization (3.2.1), the process (3.4.1) or activity to be audited, or language or culture. Note 2 to entry: A technical expert does not act as an auditor (3.13.15) in the audit team (3.13.14). [SOURCE: ISO 19011:2011, 3.10, modified Note 1 to entry has been modified]
 
TEST(ISO9000:2015- 3.11.8)- determination (3.11.1) according to requirements (3.6.4) for a specific intended use or application. Note 1 to entry: If the result of a test shows conformity (3.6.11), it can be used for purposes of validation (3.8.13).
 
TOP MANAGEMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.1.1)- person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.2.1) at the highest level. Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the organization. Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system (3.5.3) covers only part of an organization, then top management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization. Note 3 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.
 
TRACEABILITY(ISO9000:2015- 3.6.13)- ability to trace the history, application or location of an object (3.6.1). Note 1 to entry: When considering a product (3.7.6) or a service (3.7.7), traceability can relate to: the origin of materials and parts; the processing history; the distribution and location of the product or service after delivery. Note 2 to entry: In the field of metrology, the definition in ISO/IEC Guide 99 is the accepted definition.
 
VALIDATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.13)- confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence (3.8.3), that the requirements (3.6.4) for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled. Note 1 to entry: The objective evidence needed for a validation is the result of a test (3.11.8) or other form of determination (3.11.1) such as performing alternative calculations or reviewing documents (3.8.5). Note 2 to entry: The word validated is used to designate the corresponding status. Note 3 to entry: The use conditions for validation can be real or simulated.
 
VERIFICATION(ISO9000:2015- 3.8.12)- confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence (3.8.3), that specified requirements (3.6.4)have been fulfilled. Note 1 to entry: The objective evidence needed for a verification can be the result of an inspection (3.11.7) or of other forms of determination (3.11.1) such as performing alternative calculations or reviewing documents (3.8.5). Note 2 to entry: The activities carried out for verification are sometimes called a qualification process (3.4.1). Note 3 to entry: The word verified is used to designate the corresponding status.
 
VISION(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.10)- aspiration of what an organization (3.2.1) would like to become as expressed by top management (3.1.1)
 
WORK ENVIRONMENT(ISO9000:2015- 3.5.5)- set of conditions under which work is performed. Note 1 to entry: Conditions can include physical, social, psychological and environmental factors (such as temperature, lighting, recognition schemes, occupational stress, ergonomics and atmospheric composition).
 
 
QTY
AUDITSystematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extend to which audit criteria are fulfilled
 
COMPETENCEDemonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills
 
CONCESSIONPermission to use or release a product that does not conform to the specified requirements
 
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENTRecurring activity to increase the ability to fulfill requirements. The process of enhancing the business continuity management system in order to achieve improvements in overall business continuity management performance consistent with the organization’s business continuity management policy.
 
CUSTOMER SATISFACTIONCustomer’s perception of the degree to which the customer’s requirements have been fulfilled
 
DEVIATION PERMITPermission to depart from the originally specified requirements of a product prior to realization
 
DOCUMENTSInformation and its support medium
 
EFFECTIVENESSExtent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved
 
GENERICmeans that the same standards can be applied to any organization, large or small, whatever its product service in any sector of activity, and whether it is a business enterprise, a public administration, or a government department
 
GRADEis a category or a rank given to different quality requirements for products, processes or systems having the same functioning
 
INSPECTIONConformity evaluation by observation and judgment accompanied as appropriate by measurement, testing or gauging (ISO IEC Guide 2)
 
INTERESTED PARTYPerson or group having an interest in the performance or success of an organization
 
MALCOLM BALDRIDGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARDThe Baldridge Award is given by the President of the United States to businesses—manufacturing and service, small and large—and to education and health care organizations that apply and are judged to be outstanding in seven areas leadership; strategic planning; customer and market focus; measurement, analysis and knowledge management; human resource focus; process management; and results.
 
NON CONFORMITYNon-fulfillment of a requirement
 
OBJECTIVE EVIDENCEData supporting the existence or verity of something
 
PROCEDURESare specified ways to carry out an activity or a process
 
PROCESSSet of interrelated interacting activities that transforms inputs into outputs
 
QMSManagement system to direct and control an organization with regard to quality
 
QUALITYis the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements
 
QUALITY ASSURANCEis a part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. Activities or programs whose purpose is to demonstrate and ensure that products and services meet specifications and are consistently of high quality.
 
QUALITY CONTROLis a part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements. Activities or programs whose purpose is to ensure that all quality specifications for products or services are being met and are of consistently high quality.
 
QUALITY IMPROVEMENTPart of quality management focused on increasing the ability to fulfill quality requirements. Any system or process designed to enhance an organization ability to meet quality requirements.
 
QUALITY PLANDocument specifying which procedures and associated resources shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project, product or process…
 
QUALITY PLANNINGPart of quality management focused on setting quality objectives and specifying necessary operational processes and related resources to fulfill the quality objectives
 
RECORDSDocument stating the results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed
 
REVIEWActivity undertaken to determine the suitability, adequacy, effectiveness of the subject matter to achieve established objectives
 
SIX SIGMASix Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven methodology used to eliminate defects and improve processes and cut costs from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service.
 
SPECIFICATIONDocument stating requirements
 
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURESA prescribed written procedure outlining how recurring tasks, duties and functions are to be performed organization-wide.
 
WORK ENVIRONMENTSet of conditions under which work is performed
 
 
If the term you are searching for is not available, please add any specific term here